Sudden Infant Death Syndrome remains a mystery
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – Cherokee Nation citizen Angela Garrett remembers the cold day in January 1993 as one that began like a normal day.
She had just per her 2-month-old son, Blaine, down for a nap in his crib. She checked on him frequently, but despite that, one hour later Blaine died in his sleep. The cause was Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.
October is Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, or SIDS, Awareness Month. SIDS occurs at a rate of about 0.5 per 1,000 births. However, in American Indian and African American populations, the rate is around one per 1,000 births.
SIDS is considered the death of a child less than 1 year old that remains “unexplained” after a thorough investigation including an autopsy, review of clinical history and investigation of the scene of death, said Dr. Tom Kincade, chief of Pediatrics at the Cherokee Nation Three Rivers Health Center in Muskogee.
“I think it is important for our communities to know abut SIDS due to the increased rates in Native Americans and also to be aware of the factors that can help prevent SIDS,” Kincade said.
SIDS remains a leading cause of death in healthy infants less than 1 year old, and approximately 2,100 infants in the United States die of SIDS per year, he said.
Parents can reduce the risk of SIDS by placing babies on their backs to sleep.
“Studies show that over 90 percent of infants that died from SIDS were not sleeping on their backs,” he said. “Most were sleeping on their stomachs.”
Garrett said she put Blaine on his back for his nap, but when she found him, he was on his stomach and his face was in the crib mattress.
“Somehow, at 2 months old he rolled over,” she said. “He was already gone when I found him. I didn’t even call 911(immediately.) I called my mom because he was already gone.”
She said afterward she was in a state of shock, and since then she’s blocked out most of the memory of losing Blaine to SIDS.
“I don’t even remember them taking him out,” she said. “I thought he was still in the room after the ambulance got there and everything. It was a couple of hours later and I thought he was still there.”
Even now, 14 years later, Garrett said she’s stilly trying to understand SIDS.
“From the moment I found him, I don’t remember too much of anything else,” she said. “He wasn’t sick. He didn’t have a cold. There wasn’t anything wrong with him.”
Studies have also shown that letting babies use pacifiers while sleeping can reduce the SIDS risk, Kincade said. He added that infants should sleep on a firm sleeping surface, should not be overdressed while they sleep and stuffed animals, excess bedding and blankets should be avoided.
“When babies leave the hospital nursery they should be able to maintain a normal body temperature which means if parents feel comfortable in shorts and a tee shirt, their babies will too,” he said.
Educational materials about SIDS have been placed in the clinic and exam rooms at the Three Rivers Health Center, and other tribal clinics have been encouraged to do the same, Kincade said.
SALLISAW, Okla. – Cherokee Nation Construction Resources is working on four health centers within the tribe’s jurisdiction. Two new health centers are under construction in Jay and Ochelata, and additional space is being added to two of the tribe’s oldest facilities in Sallisaw and Stilwell.
The new construction is part of a $104.3 million health care investment, which Cherokee Nation Businesses’ profits is funding.
“It is probably one of the most rewarding projects that we’ve ever taken on. It’s not just one clinic, it’s multiple clinics and it’s all for the Cherokee people,” CNCR Executive General Manager Cheryl Cohenour said. “We’re Cherokees building something for the benefit of other Cherokees. It’s a great source of pride for us.”
The Redbird Smith Health Center in Sallisaw is near completion as construction crews finish outside areas. The clinic is expected to be ready by the end of the year. The $11 million expansion will add 30,000 square feet to two existing health center buildings located at 301 S. J.T. Stites Blvd. and will include a new drive-through pharmacy, more lab space and physical therapy and mammography services. It will also have more than 25 exam rooms.
“What we’re doing is we’re adding on an annex to the existing clinic. Our target date to be ready for medical equipment to come in around the 25th of October,” Cohenour said.
The Redbird Smith Health Center was the first Indian health clinic to be constructed “from the ground up” in 1992 under CN management. The 21,945-square-foot health center opened in 1993 and was recently renovated because of mold. Reopened in August after two years of renovations, it now houses dental services, clinic administrative offices, a fitness area and public health nursing.
In 2007 an annex building was added adjacent to the original health center. This building is 11,444 square feet and was increased the capacity of the original health center.
A new health center for Jay is on schedule for a March completion, Cohenour said. The foundation has been poured and the steel for the walls and roof is in place for the 42,000-square-foot building.
The $13.5 million health facility will accommodate services such as primary care; dental; optometry; radiology; behavioral health; public health nursing; pharmacy with mail order; laboratory; nutrition; Women, Infants and Children services; contract health; and diabetes care. The CN also plans to add physical therapy.
Cohenour said a new 28,000-square-foot health center in Ochelata should be complete in December. Crews have been working on the interior of the $9 million Cooweescoowee Health Center, which will accommodate services such as primary care, dental, optometry, radiology, behavioral health, public health nursing, pharmacy, a laboratory, contract health, diabetes care and WIC.
It will replace an existing 5,000-square-foot health center in Bartlesville, which opened in 2002.
Cohenour also said the expansion of the Wilma P. Mankiller Health Center is going well. The foundation has been poured for the 28,000-square-foot addition, which should be complete in May.
The current 36,000-square-foot clinic is 20 years old and has approximately 135,00 patient visits annually and needs more space as its patient load increases, said tribal officials. The CN operates the largest tribal health system in the United States with 1.2 million patient visits a year.
The WPMHC offers primary care, pediatrics, physical therapy, mammography, dental, optometry, radiology, behavioral health, public health nursing, a pharmacy, a laboratory, nutrition assistance, diabetes care and WIC.
The design for the new W.W. Hastings Hospital is also complete as CNCR officials prepare to work on the three-story, 155,000-square-foot facility, which will be located on the east side of the current hospital in Tahlequah.
“We’re just doing everything we possibly can without turning dirt because we can’t do that (turn dirt) until we hear about the joint venture,” Cohenour said.
In August, the Tribal Council approved a request to Indian Health Services to participate in its Joint Venture Construction Program. If approved, IHS would help CNCR construct the $54 million hospital by providing staffing and operations funding for the hospital’s construction. Under the agreement, the CN would purchase equipment and provide the facility’s construction.
CN Health Services Executive Director Connie Davis said the CN would not break ground until it receives word about whether the tribe can participate in the Joint Venture Construction Program. To do so would disqualify the CN from the program.
“We feel pretty good about our chances, but the process is not complete yet, so we’re waiting on a decision. That decision will impact what precise date we will begin construction, so until that process is complete, which we expect to be completed this year, we just can’t specify a date,” CN Secretary of State Chuck Hoskin Jr. said.
The IHS is authorized to establish Joint Venture Construction Program projects with tribes for the construction of health care facilities as long as tribes spend tribal funds or other non-IHS funds, including loan guarantees, for the construction of a tribally owned health care facility. In exchange, for a minimum of 20 years, the IHS agrees to lease the health facility and land under a no-cost lease and provide the equipment, supplies and staffing for the operation and maintenance of the health facility.
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – The Cherokee Nation will host the grand opening ceremony of the new Jack Brown Center at 10:30 a.m. on Oct. 27 at 1413 Missionary Circle near the Male Seminary Recreation Center off Fourth Street.
According to a release, the treatment center helps Native youth overcome drug and alcohol addiction.
“It’s one of only 10 centers of its kind in the country. The former Jack Brown Center was located in a 1930s era facility on the Sequoyah Schools campus. The new center is a 28,000-square-foot farmstead architecture style campus, with five buildings. The expansion allows the center to serve 36 Native youths instead of the previous capacity of 20,” the release states.
The campus will have both male and female dorms, a cafeteria and therapy rooms.
“An iconic silo, part of the dairy farm on the original property, was kept as part of the design. In its 26 years, the Jack Brown Center has treated more than 1,700 Native youths,” according to the release.
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. (AP) — The Cherokee Nation is opening a new $5 million substance abuse treatment center in Tahlequah.
Tribal officials will conduct a grand opening Monday for the new Jack Brown Center, which helps treat Native American youth for drug and alcohol addiction.
The tribe says the 28,000-square-foot campus includes five buildings and will serve up to 36 clients.
The campus features a recreation center, cafeteria, group therapy rooms and male and female dorms.
TULSA, Okla. – Clinical psychologists at the University of Tulsa, along with undergraduate and graduate students, are working to determine whether Native Americans process pain differently than other races.
Nearly three years ago, Dr. Jamie Rhudy, associate professor of clinical psychology at TU, and Dr. Joanna Shadlow, applied assistant professor of clinical psychology at TU, became interested in pain processing within Natives after realizing Natives had yet to be thoroughly examined but were shown to have a high prevalence of chronic pain.
“We did some digging around (and) we found that hardly anything had been done looking at pain in Native Americans,” Rhudy said. “(Existing studies) were (primarily) epidemiological, meaning that they were studying prevalence rates. There was not much out there in the literature, but what literature there was suggested that Native Americans actually have a higher prevalence of chronic pain and pain in general than any other minority group or the majority white group.”
The duo then conducted a pilot study.
“We developed a very small study and we conducted (it) over the course of about 18 months and we were able to get about 22 individual Native Americans, both male and female, all pain-free and healthy, and a control group of 20 Caucasians (healthy and pain-free),” he said. “We were surprised to find the Native Americans had lower pain sensitivity. They had higher pain thresholds, higher pain tolerances.”
Rhudy said this was opposite of what they predicted, stating that people who are at risk for chronic pain usually have higher pain sensitivity. He added that factors that contribute to chronic pain risk may be different in Native Americans.
With hopes of receiving funding and conducting a larger, more in-depth study of the link between Natives and chronic pain, Rhudy said they submitted a grant proposal to the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, an institute within the National Institutes of Health that focuses on reducing health disparities in minorities.
“The group (NIMHD) believed that this would be a good project to invest their funds in,” said Rhudy. “They gave us funds to do a multi-year project and we’re going to do it (on a) much larger scale.”
The project began in August 2013 with equipment purchasing, setting up lab areas and training student researchers. This past March researchers began recruiting participants.
The project is funded for four years but Rhudy said he hopes to extend it to a fifth year if funds allow.
“We’re targeting 120 Native American and 120 Caucasian controls. The first thing that we want to do is be able to replicate the findings that we found in our first pilot study and (find out) if that’s true the Native American group is less pain sensitive than the Caucasian group,” he said.
Individuals partaking in the study must be healthy, currently pain-free, have no history of chronic pain and be 18 years of age or older. Before coming to the TU lab, participants will receive a phone screening to ensure they are qualified. For example, participants cannot be on pain medications. If they do take pain medications the medications must be washed out of their systems before they can participate, Rhudy said.
The study involves two days of testing. Each testing day can last between four and six hours.
On one testing day sensors are placed on the participants face, hands, torso, top of the head and back of the leg. It generally takes an hour to apply the sensors.
“It’s not like when folks come in that they’ll actually be going through four hours of continuous painful stimuli,” he said. “We very thoughtfully tried to arrange the tests in such a way that there are breaks in between them.”
The test can occur on back-to-back days or be spread out. The tests are also available on weekends. Those who complete both days of testing receive $200 and those who complete one day receive $100.
Rhudy said participants who have to drive more than 30 minutes for testing are reimbursed for mileage.
“If the participants are coming in from out of town we reimburse for mileage,” he said. “For people who are coming a really far distance and it’s not feasible for them to come in on two separate days, we actually have money available to put individuals up in a hotel room to stay over night so that we can get them tested in two consecutive days.”
The multiple tests include those involving heat, cold water and pressure. He said one stimulus they would test is a controlled heat stimulus conducted with safe and precise equipment.
“We deliver heat pulses and then we measure people’s reactions to that both subjectively, like their perception of it, then we measure the body’s (physiological) reaction,” he said.
Another stimulus will be cold water. Rhudy said they would have circulating water that they can set at a specific temperature. Rhudy said during one test participants will be asked to place their hand in the water, up to their wrist and to keep it there as long as they can tolerate it.
“While their arm is in the water we have them rate, in real time, the pain as it’s evolving,” he said.
He said researchers also have a device that applies pressure to the skin to examine how much pressure is needed before the body site becomes painful, a device that dispenses electric stimuli to active nerves known to be involved with pain processing and a device that works with blood flow and requires the participant to wear a blood pressure cuff that squeezes the upper arm and creates a throbbing pain in the forearm muscles.
Participants will also view a series of emotional photos that are pleasant, unpleasant or neutral.
He said electrical stimulations will be delivered to nerves in the ankle during the pictures and researchers can see how reactions in the brain and spinal cord change by the pictures participants are seeing.
Participants will also be put through a test to see how their body reacts to pain when tasked with another painful procedure.
“The way we do this is we have participants place their arm in the cold circulating water and then we test pain using electric stimulations and heat on a different body part before, during and after having their hand in the cold water,” he said.
After conducting the tests, Rhudy said, researches will contact participants and conduct brief assessments to see if any participants have began to develop chronic pain.
“We’re going to be checking in with them every six months,” he said.
He said this would be a 30-minute assessment regarding the participant’s health, pain and well-being and that no painful tests would be conducted.
Rhudy said by conducting the tests and ongoing assessments, researches hope to identify potential risk factors for chronic pain development so they can prevent or possibly reverse chronic pain development.
Ultimately, Rhudy said he and other researchers hope to help Native Americans who have high-risk factors for or who live with chronic pain.
“We hope that this is going to help thousands of people in the future to be able to keep them from going on to develop chronic pain and maybe even develop interventions for those that do ultimately develop chronic pain, but we can’t know (do) that without doing these types of studies,” he said.
For more information, call 918-631-3565 or 918-631-2175.
BOSTON, Mass. – According to an October 2014 Harvard Women’s Health Watch, to lower cholesterol a health diet is necessary, but that doesn’t mean the food must be “less appetizing.”
“A heart-healthy diet doesn't have to be an exercise in self-deprivation,” states the Harvard health publication.
“It's a good idea to say goodbye to some snacks and fast foods, but they can usually be replaced with others that are equally satisfying. The key is exchanging bad fats for good ones,” Kathy McManus, director of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women’s Hospital, said. “Because all fats contain the same number of calories – about 100 per tablespoon – the substitution isn’t likely to leave you feeling hungry.”
She adds that trans fats show up on food labels as “partially hydrogenated” oils.
“They are found most commonly in packaged bakery goods, crackers, microwave popcorn, and other snacks,” she said. “Trans fats boost the level of harmful LDL cholesterol, lower protective HDL cholesterol, and increase inflammation.”
The publication also states to use vegetable oils when possible.
“These contain a mixture of healthy monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Other good sources of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats include most seeds and nuts, avocados, and fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, trout, herring, and mackerel,” Harvard Women’s Health Watch states.
McManus said saturated fats and dietary cholesterol are all right in small amounts, they are mostly found in animal-based foods like red meat and milk.
“That translates to four eggs a week and small servings of red meat, shrimp, lobster, cheese, butter, and organ meats every couple of weeks or so. But don't make the mistake of substituting sugar for fat. Many foods advertised as low fat, like salad dressings and cookies, contain extra sugar to make up for the loss of flavor from removing fat,” the publication states.
McManus said doing so is one of the worst choices you can make.
“The higher-fat version may sometimes be a better choice,” she added.
CATOOSA, Okla. – Throughout October, Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Tulsa guests can enjoy a stay on a hotel floor decked out in pink décor and earn a chance to win a custom, restored 1955 pink Cadillac and purchase limited edition pink apparel.
“We’ve taken pink to a whole new level this year, and it is a creative way for our guests and Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Tulsa to contribute to the ongoing fight against breast cancer,” Jon Davidson, hotel director of hospitality said. “We’re extremely proud to help bring awareness to Oklahoma Project Woman, because it is a local organization that provides services year-round to those who are battling a disease that impacts thousands of Oklahomans each year.”
To contribute to the ongoing fight against breast cancer, The Hard Rock Store is also selling limited edition pink apparel with a portion of the proceeds being donated to Oklahoma Project Woman, which provides breast health education, no cost mammography, diagnostic procedures and surgical services for women who because of financial hardship may delay seeking medical attention.
Also during the month, guests who book a room on the 10th floor of Hard Rock’s newest hotel tower will experience all pink amenities, including sheets, pillows, robes, elevator and hotel suite doors.
For giveaway rules and details for the pink Cadillac or for more information, visit <a href="http://www.hardrockcasinotulsa.com" target="_blank">www.hardrockcasinotulsa.com</a> or visit the Cherokee Star Rewards Club.