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Non-recognized 'Cherokee tribes' flourish

BY TRAVIS SNELL
Assistant Editor – @cp_tsnell
01/19/2007 01:29 PM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. - Every year thousands of people are told or "discover" they have Native American blood. Sometimes it's true, sometimes not. And the tribe people most commonly associate themselves with is Cherokee.
Usually, it's harmless. But sometimes people take illegal or unethical steps to form "tribes" and sell membership. Some claim treaty rights and seek state and federal recognition, while others take federal money intended for legitimate Indian nations.

A group of Cherokee Nation employees and officials recently formed a task force to deal with these "wannabe" Cherokees.

The group consists of Dr. Richard Allen, policy analyst; Troy Wayne Poteet, executive director of the Arkansas Riverbed Authority; Tribal Councilors Jack Baker and Cara Cowan-Watts, Webmaster Tonia Williams; Teri Rhoades, Youth Business Loan Center councilor; and Richard Osborn and John Parris of the Justice Department.

And even though their task force has no official name, it does have an agenda.

"It looks at protecting our sovereignty," Allen said. "We have so many individuals and groups who are using the Cherokee name and a lot of times it's in a manner that is very inappropriate. They scam people. They charge for genealogy. They charge for DNA tests that might suggest that people could be Indian. In essence, we are looking at groups that claim to be Cherokee but have no real status and who are just distorting the culture and history."

Allen said he dealt with wannabe Cherokees for several years before Poteet became involved. From there, they got the other six task force members interested because they also deal with wannabes at their jobs.

Sometimes the situations are humorous. Allen recalled two Caucasian men from a Georgia "Cherokee" group walking around Tahlequah during one Cherokee National Holiday dressed in leather outfits and carrying a bow and a spear. Tourists began taking pictures while real Cherokees were laughing at them, he said.

But it's not funny when wannabes scam people, schools and government officials, or come together to establish tribes seeking rights.

"We don't deny that there are individuals out there who might have Indian heritage, but coming together as a group doesn't make them a tribe," Allen said. "They are creating an identity that is absolutely false."

There are only three federally recognized Cherokee tribes in the U.S. - the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians, both in Tahlequah, and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina. The rest, task force members said, are either bogus tribes or just Cherokees coming together to celebrate their culture.

"I don't think anyone (on the task force) has an objection to someone having a Cherokee heritage club and not trying to be a tribe or nation," Rhoades said. "A large part of our objection comes from when you pretend to be an Indian tribe or nation and lay claims to treaties you have no right to. That's just wrong."

Rhoades said there are more than 200 bogus Cherokee tribes. One of the biggest is the "Lost Cherokee Nation of Arkansas and Missouri" in Dover, Ark., which has about 7,000-members. In 2005, it petitioned three state legislators to support its bid to the Bureau of Indian Affairs for federal recognition. This led the Arkansas attorney general to state that the Arkansas legislature could not recognize any state tribes.

"A lot of people try to use that (state recognition) as a stepping stone by stating that a state has already recognized them, therefore they have some sort of government-to-government relationship," Rhoades said.

However, the first step to federal recognition is that a tribe must be identified as an American Indian entity on a substantially continuous basis since 1900, something most fake groups can't accomplish, Allen said.

According to a recent news story, the "Lost Cherokees" are again asking the BIA for federal recognition. The story stated the group has tried gaining federal recognition periodically for about 20 years.

"We are the Cherokees who never walked," group leader Cliff Bishop said in the story, referring to the Trail of Tears.

Another group asking for federal recognition is the "Cherokee of Lawrence County, Tenn." The tribe's principal chief, Joe "Sitting Owl" White, said he eventually expects his tribe to be federally recognized because he and his 800 fellow members are Cherokee, and he cites photography as proof.

"We've been called every name in the book, but we are Cherokee," he said. "We can take photos of our members and hold them up and see the Cherokee in us."

He also said his tribe has scientifically proven with DNA evidence that the Cherokee people are Jewish.

Lola Smith Scholl, leader of the "Western Cherokee Nation of Arkansas and Missouri," said her organization is also attempting to get federal recognition but declined further comment.

Task force members said wannabe groups asking for federal recognition are the reasons why it takes so long for legitimate tribes to go through the recognition process.

However, in some cases, federal recognition hasn't been needed for bogus tribes to receive federal money. Allen said two years ago the "Lost Cherokees" were receiving money from Arkansas schools for helping bring Office of Indian Education dollars to the schools.

Under the Indian Education Act, he said, schools are provided a certain amount of money for each Indian student they have enrolled. This led to "Lost Cherokee" members enrolling their children in schools as Indians, letting the schools collect the federal dollars and then charging the school a 5 percent "administration fee," Allen said.

Twenty-four public schools in Arkansas received about $1.1 million because of the scam. The Phoenix attempted to contact the group but got no response.

Poteet said he knows of a group in Nebraska that was pulling a tax benefit scam. He said county officials were extending the same tax benefits that are afforded to a nearby Omaha Indian reservation to an illegitimate "Cherokee" tribe.

"We don't know how much money they're bleeding off the Department of Labor, but we do know they are doing that in several states," Poteet said of the Nebraska group. "They are also bleeding money out of the Department of Education. And this is going on all over the country. These groups are siphoning funds intended for Indian people."

Task force members said they don't know how much federal money these groups take from legitimate tribes each year but would like to conduct a study on the subject.

"They don't take money from us (Cherokee Nation) directly or from our funding, but it takes away from Indians overall," Williams said.

In past years, a group calling itself the "Echota Cherokee of Alabama" has received money from the Administration for Native Americans for language preservation and were even partnered with Auburn University to help save the Cherokee language.

The Phoenix attempted to contact the "Echota Cherokee of Alabama" group, but did not receive a response.

Rhoades said Alabama's state recognized tribes have received federal education, health and housing funds as well as the right to sell arts and crafts as authentic Indian art.

Poteet said he and Baker have dealt with people from these groups attending National Trail of Tears Association gatherings around the U.S. He said some try to attain leadership positions in the association, while others meddle where they don't belong.

"We found that these groups have gone so long without anybody contesting their ridiculous claims, they have gained some local acceptance," Poteet said. "The consequence of that is that they want to interject themselves into interpretation issues. There have been situations where they have interjected themselves into Indian Child Welfare issues."

Rhoades said she knows a woman belonging to a fraudulent group who became a member of the Tennessee Indian Commission but didn't know what IHS (Indian Health Service) meant.

Other groups form attempting to get state and federal recognition so they can cash in on Indian gaming. In 2000, a group called the "Southern Cherokee Nation" claimed to be a sovereign nation and planned to open a gaming boat on the Arkansas River near Webbers Falls, Okla. Gary Ridge, the group's "principal chief," said his group took the boat to Webbers Falls only as a means to provide employment for its members.

"This was intended to be bingo only," he said. "This venture did not go forward, but I am hopeful for other ideas for development of a region whose people and their economic needs have been too long neglected."

Although not federally recognized, Ridge said the group was established as a band of the CN in the Treaty of 1866 with its own laws and jurisdiction.

"The Southern Cherokee actively continued its political entity within the Cherokee Nation through statehood and was continued, just as the Cherokee Nation was continued, by the 1906 Five Civilized Tribes Act under a presidential-appointed chief until the 1970 Principal Chiefs Act, which allowed the Cherokee Nation as well the Southern Cherokee to once again elect their own chief," he said. Ridge added that the group only wants to operate under the articles of the 1866 treaty and the 1906 Five Civilized Tribes Act.

However, Allen said the "Southern Cherokees" have no legitimate claims in Oklahoma.

"This area is the jurisdiction of the Cherokee Nation and no other tribal entity. We see these get-rich-quick schemes all the time. The problem is that these people may be taking the goodwill and reputation that Cherokees have established over centuries and using it to mislead the government and individual citizens," Allen said.

But for whatever reason these groups form, they usually have one thing in common - charging for membership.

The "United Cherokee Nation," which did not respond to Phoenix inquiries, charges a $35 application fee, while the "Western Cherokee Nation of Arkansas and Missouri" has a $60 application fee and a $10 annual roll fee. The "Cherokee of Lawrence County" don't charge for membership but instead asks its members to "make it a priority to send $10 a month to help with the tribe" and $12 to subscribe to its newsletter.

Membership fees and dues are just two signs a "Cherokee" group isn't legitimate, task force members said. Other signs include members using Indian-sounding names such as "Two Feathers" and "Wind Caller," acting and dressing like Hollywood-stereotyped Indians or Plains Indians, asking for money to perform DNA tests or genealogical research, requirements to wear regalia to meetings and requirements to go through an Indian-naming ceremony.

Once admitted into the groups, members usually get membership cards, bogus "Certified Degree of Indian Blood" cards and genealogy certificates "proving" they are eligible for membership.

"The problem is that there are so many people out there who have access to these groups (via the Internet), and for these groups to have access to all of these people, these groups are becoming larger and larger," Williams said.

Task force members said some bogus members are New Agers searching for spiritual enlightenment, but for most, they are people seeking acceptance within a community.

"Becoming a Cherokee in a certain region affords them a status that they didn't have," Allen said. "The county commissioner might start visiting with them as Cherokees. The state legislator might acknowledge them as a tribe or as leaders of a tribe. For some, it's status, taking on an identity that they did not have."

And as more adults join these groups, their children usually follow leading to even more people living with a false identity.

"Now you are getting the third and fourth generation of people who think they are Indians. The little ones coming up are immersed in a false tribal identity. They don't know any better, but they are going to grow up thinking they are Indian," Allen said.

And that's what makes the task force's work so important. As generations come and go, more groups will emerge distorting history, language and culture; wanting federal dollars for services; land and treaty rights; sovereignty; and wanting to impose their views on Indian matters.

Task force members said they are still strategizing on how to combat the groups, but do have some ideas such as networking with other federally recognized tribes to spread information about these groups. Williams said Cherokees aren't the only Indian people being misrepresented. She said the other popular tribes dealing with bogus groups are the Delaware, Navajo and Sioux.

Developing more "informants" or people who contact CN reporting bogus groups is another step, as is getting Cherokee citizens around the country to inform government officials. Allen said many people, including legislators, don't realize that most Cherokees are located in Oklahoma and North Carolina and that for the most part the "full-blood element doesn't leave." Poteet said if citizens are willing to help, then they should talk to or write their elected officials.

"An average person can help stop these groups by writing a local legislator and pointing out that states should not be in a position of creating Indian nations," he said.

In the long run, Allen said, states not recognizing bogus groups would be a major step in stopping them.

"Ultimately, I think the elimination of state recognition would be one way of looking at it, but we don't want to do harm to those tribes who have a legitimate claim who yet haven't been able to determine what it is they require for federal recognition," he said. "People who want to claim Cherokee heritage, who have legitimate claim to it, usually don't act in the manner as wannabes. It's those who put on feathers and act like an Indian tribe are the ones we have problems with."
About the Author
Travis Snell has worked for the Cherokee Phoenix since 2000. He began as a staff writer, a position that allowed him to win numerous writing awards from the Native American Journalists Association, including the Richard LaCourse Award for best investigative story in 2003. He was promoted to assistant editor in 2007, switching his focus from writing to story development, editing, design and other duties.

He is a member of NAJA, as well as the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters and Editors, and Society for News Design.

Travis earned his journalism degree with a print emphasis in 1999 from Oklahoma City University. While at OCU, he served as editor, assistant editor and sports reporter for the school’s newspaper.

He is married to Native Oklahoma publisher Lisa Snell. The couple has two children, Sadie and Swimmer. He is the grandson of original enrollee Swimmer Wesley Snell and Patricia Ann (Roberts) Snell.
TRAVIS-SNELL@cherokee.org • 918-453-5358
Travis Snell has worked for the Cherokee Phoenix since 2000. He began as a staff writer, a position that allowed him to win numerous writing awards from the Native American Journalists Association, including the Richard LaCourse Award for best investigative story in 2003. He was promoted to assistant editor in 2007, switching his focus from writing to story development, editing, design and other duties. He is a member of NAJA, as well as the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters and Editors, and Society for News Design. Travis earned his journalism degree with a print emphasis in 1999 from Oklahoma City University. While at OCU, he served as editor, assistant editor and sports reporter for the school’s newspaper. He is married to Native Oklahoma publisher Lisa Snell. The couple has two children, Sadie and Swimmer. He is the grandson of original enrollee Swimmer Wesley Snell and Patricia Ann (Roberts) Snell.

News

BY ASSOCIATED PRESS
05/26/2018 04:00 PM
FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. (AP) — American Indian tribes are welcoming an opportunity to offer sports betting in potentially hundreds of casinos across the country after the U.S. Supreme Court cleared the way for states to legalize it. Tribal casinos generate more than $31 billion a year in gross revenue. While adding sports books isn’t expected to boost that number significantly, tribes say it’s another source to deliver services to tribal members. “The conversation is always, ‘Why don’t you do like Vegas?’“ said Sheila Morago, executive director of the Oklahoma Indian Gaming Association. “Everybody always wants to give their customers things they have asked for.” Many tribes give a share of casino profits to states in exchange for exclusive rights to conduct gambling operations. In Arizona, the state’s share was about $100 million last year. Some tribes believe agreements with states already give them the right to control sports betting, while others will work out the details through negotiations in compacts that vary in wording state by state. “It’s going to be important for the tribes that their position as sovereigns and their existing compacts within their states are recognized,” said Valerie Spicer, a co-founder of the consulting firm Trilogy Group. “There’s still a lot of work left to do.” Nearly 240 tribes operate casinos in more than half of U.S. states under the federal Indian Gaming Regulatory Act or as commercial ventures. Some only have games like bingo or pull tabs that don’t need authorization from states. The majority of the roughly 475 tribal casinos have those games and others like slot machines, blackjack and other table games, according to the National Indian Gaming Commission. Sports wagering would fall in the latter category, the commission said. The U.S. Supreme Court on Monday struck down the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act on a challenge from New Jersey. The law limited sports betting to four states that met a 1991 deadline to legalize it: Nevada, Delaware, Montana and Oregon. States now can adopt laws regulating sports betting, though some already have the legal framework in place. In California, voters would have to approve a change to the state constitution. As is, California tribes have exclusivity in casino-style gambling, and some believe that includes sports betting. Steve Stallings, the chairman of the California Indian Gaming Commission, said the group that represents 34 tribes wants specifics on what sports betting would encompass before the state moves to legalize it. For example, he said, would it occur at a physical sports book or could wagers be placed online? “Expansion of gaming is a slippery slope,” he said. “Tribes feel like they have somewhat an exclusivity to it. When the state or other interests violate that, then tribes are concerned.” In Arizona, Gov. Doug Ducey saw the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision as a way to modernize tribal gambling compacts and potentially boost revenue to the state. Most of the tribal compacts are up for renewal in 2022. Greg Jones was visiting a casino run by the Navajo Nation east of Flagstaff this week. He said he used to bet regularly on college football and being able to do it at a tribal casino less than an hour from his home beats traveling to Nevada. “It’s a big pot,” he said. “Everyone should be able to dip their foot in the pool.” Tribes in Oklahoma have been trying to get sports betting approved through the state legislature in the last two sessions but have been unsuccessful, Morago said. In Connecticut, the Mohegan Tribe said it’s looking forward to working with the state to legalize and regulate sports betting. “We have long felt that Mohegan Gaming & Entertainment was in a great position to offer this type of gaming at our properties,” spokeswoman Jennifer Harris Ballester wrote in a statement. Ernie Stevens Jr., chairman of the National Indian Gaming Association, said the group has been preparing tribal governments for sports betting with listening sessions outlining internal regulations and negotiations of state gambling compacts. Location and competition would be major factors in tribes’ decisions to add sports betting, he said. “I don’t believe this is going to take the place of our slot machines, but it’s another amenity we can enjoy and people can have fun with,” he said. “And we want to be able to move forward with the overall industry.”
BY ASSOCIATED PRESS
05/26/2018 12:00 PM
TULSA, Okla. (AP) — Experts are looking at how Oklahoma's seismic activity impacts critical infrastructure as frequent, low-level earthquake swarms continue to pop off throughout the state. The Tulsa World reports that Oklahoma has experienced 80 earthquakes of 3.0 or greater magnitudes this year through Thursday morning. The Oklahoma Geological Survey says that 2015 was the state's peak year, with just over 900 quakes of 3.0 or greater. A Society of Exploration Geophysicists article this month said that soil, concrete and steel structures are "susceptible to fatigue" under seismic conditions that weren't considered during design. Scientists worry long-term low-level shaking could affect storage tanks and pipelines in Cushing, an oil hub in Oklahoma. The Tulsa-based society is hosting an August forum to engage experts in discussions on the issues and write for publication.
BY STAFF REPORTS
05/25/2018 03:30 PM
TAHLEQUAH – The Cherokee Nation will host a send-off ceremony for its cyclists who leave Tahlequah on Tuesday for the annual “Remember the Removal” Bike Ride. This year’s cyclists range in age from 18 to 24. They will meet eight cyclists from the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina for a ride that begins in New Echota, Georgia, on June 3, and concludes around 950 miles later on June 21 in Tahlequah. Cyclists follow the Northern Route of the Trail of Tears - spanning Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma – to retrace the path of their ancestors. Of the estimated 16,000 Cherokees forced to march to Indian Territory in the late 1830s, 4,000 died from exposure, starvation and disease, giving credence to the name Trail of Tears. During the ceremony, tribal leaders will wish the cyclists a successful trip and safe return. The CN riders are Daulton Cochran, Emilee Chavez, Lily Drywater, Dale Eagle, Parker Weavel, Sky Wildcat, Courtney Cowan, Autumn Lawless and Amari McCoy. Jennifer Johnson, a CN citizen and Oklahoma City lawyer, was chosen as this year’s mentor rider. Cherokee Nation Businesses Executive Vice President Chuck Garrett, an avid cyclist, is also expected to join the cyclists during the journey’s first week. Follow the riders at <a href="http://www.facebook.com/removal.ride" target="_blank">www.facebook.com/removal.ride</a> and on Twitter and Instagram with the hashtags #RTR2018 and #WeRemember.
BY STAFF REPORTS
05/25/2018 12:00 PM
OKLAHOMA CITY – Officials with the Oklahoma Senior Games said registration for the 2018 competition is open and will feature 20 events, including new ones such as a power walk, softball, corn hole and washer pitch. Local Senior Games events were held this spring in Yukon and will be held this fall in Ardmore from Sept. 7-14. Fall events will also be held in the Oklahoma City and Tulsa areas. All athletes must be 50 years old by Dec. 31, except for those who compete in badminton, cycling, tennis and table tennis. Those events are open to athletes who are 40 and older by Dec. 31. Participants will compete in one of the following age categories for both individual and/or doubles sports: 50-54, 55-59,60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, 85-89,90-94,95-99 and 100 and older. Team sports are divided into the following brackets: 50-plus, 55-plus, 60-plus, 65-plus, 70-plus, 75-plus, 80-plus and 85-plus. Partner and team age groups will be determined by the age of the youngest partner/team member. Athletes may enter as many events as their schedule allows. Participants finishing in the top places in their age category in each event qualify for National Senior Games set for June 14-25, 2019, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Early bird registration is $50 before 11:59 p.m. on Aug. 1. After Aug. 1, registration is $60 until two weeks before each event’s entry deadline. Fee includes up to 6 events. Additional events will be $5 each. A $10 fee will be added for paper registrations. For more information, visit <a href="http://okseniorgames.com/" target="_blank">http://okseniorgames.com/</a>.
BY WILL CHAVEZ
Assistant Editor – @cp_wchavez
05/25/2018 10:00 AM
TAHLEQUAH – The Cherokee Nation’s Supreme Court on May 16 dismissed a case by eight CN citizens asking the court to compel Attorney General Todd Hembree to appeal a federal ruling that gave Cherokee Freedmen tribal citizenship rights. “The (eight) movants are individual Cherokee citizens who disagree with the outcome of the federal case and disagree with the way the Nation and the attorney general’s office handled the case,” the ruling states. “The ruling of the federal court has no effect on the citizenship of the movants. They have failed to demonstrate any concrete injury in fact sufficient to establish standing to bring this suit.” On Aug. 30, in the case of Cherokee Nation v. Nash and Vann v. Zinke, Senior U.S. District Judge Thomas Hogan ruled the CN could define itself as it sees fit but must do so equally and evenhandedly with respect to native Cherokees and Freedmen descendants. “In accordance with Article 9 of the 1866 Treaty, the Cherokee Freedmen have a present right to citizenship in the Cherokee Nation that is coextensive with the rights of Native Cherokees,” Hogan states. The following day, Hembree stated he would not appeal Hogan’s decision. On Sept. 1, the Supreme Court ordered the CN government and its offices, including Registration, to begin processing CN citizenship applications of eligible Freedmen descendants. In its May 16 ruling, the Supreme Court wrote that Hembree petitioned “this court to enter a preliminary order declaring that the memorandum opinion issued by the District Court for the District of Columbia…on August 30, 2017, to be valid and binding against the Cherokee Nation, its governmental branches, and its offices, including the Cherokee Nation Registrar until further order of the court.” Prior to Hembree’s petition, on March 16, 2009, the Tribal Council passed a resolution ratifying the litigation in Cherokee Nation v. Nash and acknowledged that it was “desired” that the federal court determine rights of the Freedmen and that the Cherokee Nation “would be bound by the decision of the federal court.” “Cherokee Nation voluntarily entered this litigation and agreed to be bound by the decision, therefore, this court granted the request of Attorney General and entered a preliminary order granted declaratory action and petition for write of mandamus,” the May 16 ruling states. A writ of mandamus is an order from a higher court to a lower court or to a government official, office or corporation commanding that a specified thing be done. On Dec. 11, the eight movants filed a motion to intervene and asked the Supreme Court to withdraw the order and direct Hembree to appeal Hogan’s ruling. On Dec. 29, the CN and Hembree filed a special limited entry of appearance and objection to the Dec. 11 motion to intervene. The Supreme Court heard oral arguments on April 19. The eight movants were represented by Broken Arrow attorney Stephen Gray who called Hembree’s decision not to appeal an “attack on the Nation’s sovereignty.” “Citizens’ motions and petition have become necessary because Hembree argues that he has the sole authority to appeal or not appeal the D.C. case in his position as attorney general, without consultation with the council and is protected by sovereign immunity from citizens. His argument puts him not only above the law, but now he is the law,” states Gray’s court petition. In his petition Gray also argued that Hembree, without Tribal Council consent, “is negotiating away the Nation’s sovereignty and obligating the Nation to tens of millions of dollars in liability.” Some of that liability, Gray’s petition asserts, would be in the form of tribal services that would be provided to Freedmen, who are descendants of slaves once held by CN citizens. Assistant Attorney General Chrissi Nimmo responded that the Tribal Council doesn’t have a right to question Hembree’s decisions. Two legislators, Harley Buzzard and David Walkingstick, were among the eight movants. In court, Nimmo said Buzzard and Walkingstick filed the case against the CN and Hembree as citizens but then changed their standing to their official capacity as legislators. She said Tribal Councilors don’t have the right to sue Hembree and force him to appeal the Freedmen decision. Also, Nimmo reminded the court that on Dec. 11, the Tribal Council indefinitely tabled Walkingstick’s legislation to appeal the federal court ruling on Freedmen receiving tribal citizenship. Nimmo said that vote “killed” the issue of appealing Hogan’s decision. Gray argued that the Tribal Council has a right to be involved in all “settlements” involving the CN. However, Nimmo disagreed with calling the federal ruling a settlement. “This is an order of the court after years of litigation that the AG chose not to appeal,” she said. “The Council is not a client of the AG. The Cherokee Nation is his client.”
BY TRAVIS SNELL
Assistant Editor – @cp_tsnell
05/24/2018 04:00 PM
RANCHO PALOS VERDES, Calif. – A video by a 20-year-old Cherokee Nation citizen has gone viral after a security guard took his tribal identification card on May 6 at Marymount California University. Nicolas Rojas, an El Camino Community College student, said he went to MCU to study with a friend who attends the university when a security guard checking IDs took his CN photo ID card and became “hostile.” “He then told me I had to leave, yelled at me and threatened to have me arrested. He became very hostile with me, started harassing me and put his hands inside my car, during which I started to record him,” Rojas said. “He told me I had to leave, but he had taken my ID with him and refused to give it back until I left and parked at a different school nearby. The whole interrogation took over a half an hour and I had a project due that Monday. I just wanted to study with my friend, but instead was threatened to be arrested several times without reasoning.” The ID card the security guard took is a CN photo ID card that contains a tribal citizen’s photo and citizenship information one side and Cherokee blood quantum on the other. According to CN Communications, the cards are federally recognized. And TSA.gov states the cards are Transportation Security Administration-approved for domestic travel. Rojas said he’s used his CN ID card to apply for jobs, board domestic flights and at banks to withdraw money. He added that the security guard spoke unprofessionally to him and refused to give back the ID. “I want this…to bring awareness about the issues indigenous people of North America face and the constant humiliation we have to endure by just existing,” Rojas said. “Campuses should be places of sanctuary for all attempting to further themselves through education. I don’t understand why he held onto my ID considering that he already at that point had told me that I would not be allowed to enter the campus. He took my ID with him as he was threatening to have me arrested.” Rojas said he eventually got his ID back from the security guard after his friend, who is a resident advisor at MCU, showed and asked the guard for the ID back. “I find it pitiful that I have to have a communicator within a place of power just to get my ID back,” he said. Rojas said he contacted university officials about the incident who told him they needed to fully investigate the incident from both perspectives. He said officials said if they found the guard liable then they would retrain him. “Ideally I would want campus-wide diversity talks, and all guards to have a day of retraining. I personally feel that many institutions are not a welcoming places for minorities, and this demonstrates the hostility many of us face just trying to even enter a campus,” Rojas said. According to the AJ+ video of the incident, MCU President Brian Marcotte said he watched the video and was “confident there was no discrimination” and that “it didn’t seem threatening.” According to the video, the school said it would train security on different IDs. To view the video, visit <a href="https://www.facebook.com/ajplusenglish/videos/1197973477010824/" target="_blank">https://www.facebook.com/ajplusenglish/videos/1197973477010824/</a>.