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Art act in effect at holiday

09/18/2008 10:23 AM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – This Cherokee National Holiday, anyone marketing themselves as Indians and operating vendor booths on Cherokee Nation property must be able to prove citizenship in a federally recognized tribe or face expulsion.

The tough measure stems from the tribe’s Truth in Advertising for Native Art Act, which Tribal Councilors passed and Principal Chief Chad Smith signed in January.

“We sent all of our arts and crafts vendors a copy of the Truth in Advertising for Native Art Act along with an arts and crafts contract,” Lou Slagle, holiday coordinator, said. “I’ll be making up some sort of license or verification (showing) that this vendor is an authorized Native American vendor.”

He said his staff would check booths to ensure that the act is followed and that if a vendor is caught misleading or deceiving customers, the vendor would be escorted off CN property by CN marshals and banned.

Despite the tough penalty, the act isn’t designed to stop non-Indians from operating holiday booths, but to stop them from claiming to be Indians.

“Any vendor can go out there. It’s just the difference between this vendor being certified as a tribal member versus someone who is just selling stuff,” Tonia Williams, CN Web manager and member of the tribe’s Fraudulent Indian Tribes Team, said. “As a Cherokee, as a federally recognized tribal citizen, you should be able to be certified as a federally recognized tribal citizen instead of just coming in and claiming to be Indian.”

FITT members said they initiated the act after seeing non-Indians using Web sites, buying memberships into state-recognized tribes or other so-called Indian groups and calling or associating themselves with Indian cultures – primarily through art – to legitimize themselves as Indians.

Cara Cowan Watts, Dist. 7 Tribal Councilor and FITT member, said many non-Indians use “fake identities” to sell art, fabricate culture and legitimize themselves as Indians.

Williams said FITT members don’t know how much money has been spent on non-Indian art over legitimate Indian art during the years but “for every dollar they (non-Indians) receive, it’s a dollar that doesn’t go to a real Native American.”

Theact’s main purpose is to foster authentic Indian art and combat non-Indians selling art as Indian art by defining an Indian as a federally recognized tribal citizen. Cowan Watts said the limited definition makes the CN act stronger than the U.S. Indian Arts and Crafts Act, which includes state-recognized tribal citizens.

She said the tribe’s act also expands the definition of art. It states that art is “an object or action that is made with the intention of stimulating the human senses as well as the human mind/and or spirit regardless of any functional uses,” including crafts, handmade items, traditional storytelling, contemporary art or techniques, oral histories, other performing arts and printed materials.

“It is to clarify any art, performing art, physical art or written art that you have to be a federally recognized tribal citizen if you are claiming that those things are Indian or Native American,” Cowan Watts said. “That’s different from the federal Indian Arts and Crafts Act in that it is more inclusive of all art forms. And it limits it to federally recognized tribal citizens because we believe that so-called state recognized tribes are illegitimate.”

FITT coordinator Julie Ross said the federal law allows non-Indians to market themselves as Indians because all they have to do is join a state-recognized tribe, which usually requires an enrollment fee.

“Because the federal act recognizes state-recognized tribes, it is meaningless,” Ross said.
CN’s act also establishes guidelines for the purchase, promotion and sale of genuine Native American arts and crafts within its jurisdiction and by its entities. That includes CN government offices, Cherokee Nation Businesses, Cherokee Nation Enterprises, Cherokee Nation Industries, the Housing Authority of the Cherokee Nation and any component and entity the CN is a sole or majority stockholder or owner.

For example, if non-Indian vendors sell items while claiming to be Indians on Cherokee Heritage Center grounds and go unpunished, the CHC could lose its CN funding.
“This is still all in process,” Williams said. “We don’t know what really is going to happen, but we hope that we at least start a trend.”

Cowan Watts said the act’s enforcement at holidays should bring back Cherokee artists who have been pushed out by non-Indians.

“What we find is, too frequently, it’s real easy for these folks who aren’t Cherokee to scream and yell louder than our real Cherokees,” she said. “If these non-Indian people spend their entire day playing Indian while all our real tribal citizens have regular jobs, then it’s much easier for all these people buying and selling to be attracted to these non-Indians. This will be the first holiday that the act has an effect on, so I expect that to encourage our traditional folks to return.”

The act also states the CN shall not knowingly offer for sale art produced by individuals who falsely claim, imply or suggest they are Indian and will not host, sponsor, fund or otherwise devote or contribute resources to exhibits showing artists who falsely claim, imply or suggest they are Indian.

“So we if find the Five Civilized Tribes Museum (in Muskogee, Okla.) is including known wannabes, not just state recognized…but people who are not part of a state-recognized tribe and are truly just claiming to be Indian in an art show over our federally recognized tribal citizens we could pull the money,” Cowan Watts said. “Our belief is that the Five Tribes Museum is supposed to serve the Five Civilized Tribes.”

Roger Cain, a Cherokee citizen and artist from Stilwell, Okla., said he and his wife Shawna support the act and see it as honoring their Cherokee ancestors.

“To me, if they are federally recognized they are the ones with the ancestors who stood up and said ‘I’m Cherokee; I’m Keetoowah,’ from the very beginning. We have to honor our ancestors who did this,” he said. “I got friends who are mad about it and were from the very beginning. I feel bad for them, but I tell them that I’m honoring my ancestors.”

Cain said although he supports the act, he thinks state-recognized tribal citizens have the right to make art but should have separate categories at art shows.

“If a person is buying Native art, they should know that the artist still lives in the community, still works with the Indian community and practices within the Indian community and is federally recognized,” he said. “We want to make a different category for the state-recognized tribes so they can show their stuff and aren’t competing with us.”

He does, however, want the law to impact people who know nothing about Indians or Indian culture yet tell people they are Indian.

“I want this law to impact those guys,” he said. “That’s what this law is about, catching those guys. If I’m out here in the woods gathering what I need to make my art piece, and then somebody in a big city who all of a sudden realizes they are Indian because of an old family photo can order stuff off the Internet and make their piece, it makes me say, ‘hey, I’m out here living the Cherokee culture by gathering my materials and you’re living where the Cherokees got moved away from.’ That is what the act is about – reinforcing real Cherokees and real Indians.”

FITT members said along with the holiday booths and CHC gift shop, the act has also affected CNE’s art markets and gifts shops by ensuring each item sold under the Indian art label is made by federally recognized tribal citizens.

“The entities have cleaned up a lot of the stuff they had,” Williams said. “We’ve had everything from stuff made in China to artists’ works and things like that. They have cleaned up to where they aren’t presenting non-Indians’ works, especially books. If you are saying that you are Cherokee in the book, and you’re not, then don’t say it.”

Cowan Watts said books not written by “federally recognized tribal citizens are supposed to be migrated out or there’s going to be a sticker on them saying they are not Cherokee or Indians.”

One writer she cites is author Robert J. Conley, whose books include Cherokee history-based fictions, as well as the non-fiction works “A Cherokee Encyclopedia” and “The Cherokee Nation: A History,” which the CN commissioned him to write.

Cowan Watts said Conley is only an associate member of the United Keetoowah Band and can’t trace any Cherokee heritage.

Conley, who disagrees with the act, said he traces his Cherokee lineage to the Dawes Rolls via his grandmother, Myrtle E. Parris, who is listed on the final rolls.

“If I’m not a Cherokee, it’s interesting that the Cherokee Nation registered me initially and the UKB later enrolled me,” he said. “My grandmother is one of the original (Dawes Rolls) enrollees. If Cara Cowan and her cohorts have nothing better to do than be Cherokee blood police, then they need to find some kind of lives for themselves.”

According to the UKB Office of Enrollment, Conley is an inactive member.

“In tribal enrollment terms his file is labeled ‘inactive’ because there is no record of a relinquishment letter (of CN citizenship) or a CDIB (Certificate Degree of Indian Blood) for Mr. Conley,” Sammy Still, UKB media coordinator, wrote in an e-mail. “In regards to whether Mr. Conley would be able to become a member of the United Keetoowah Band, this would depend on what degree of blood he is by providing the tribe with a CDIB.”

Conley said there was no relinquishment letter because he wasn’t a CN citizen when he enrolled in the UKB and that he doesn’t have a CDIB because he doesn’t want one.

Another aspect of the act allows the CN Tribal Employment Rights Office to certify a list of federally recognized tribal citizens as artists. Artists who register on the list would do so voluntarily, which Cowan Watts encourages.

“I get calls from Tulsa corporations or from all over the United States…and they want to buy gifts or something like that,” she said. “That way there’s a list I can send that is much more fair and equitable and we know it’s legitimate.”

Cowan Watts said the act should also help with the tribe’s cultural tourism by ensuring that tourists meet authentic Cherokees and Cherokee artists.

“We also felt that it was important to get ahead on this for the cultural truth,” she said. “It’s an economic development tool, and it’s important that we have all this in place before cultural tourism develops. We don’t want Japanese and German tourists coming in and buying from these known wannabes. We want them buying from our community members…not from who has the biggest turkey feathers.”
About the Author
Assistant Editor

Travis Snell has worked for the Cherokee Phoenix since 2000. He began as a staff writer, a position that allowed him to win numerous writing awards from the Native American Journalists Association, including the Richard LaCourse Award for best investigative story in 2003. He was promoted to assistant editor in 2007, switching his focus from writing to story development, editing, design and other duties.

He is a member of NAJA, as well as the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters and Editors, and Society of News Design.

Travis earned his journalism degree with a print emphasis in 1999 from Oklahoma City University. While at OCU, he served as editor, assistant editor and sports reporter for the school’s newspaper.

He is married to Native Oklahoma publisher Lisa Snell. The couple has two children, Sadie and Swimmer. He is the grandson of original enrollee Swimmer Wesley Snell and Patricia Ann (Roberts) Snell.
Assistant Editor Travis Snell has worked for the Cherokee Phoenix since 2000. He began as a staff writer, a position that allowed him to win numerous writing awards from the Native American Journalists Association, including the Richard LaCourse Award for best investigative story in 2003. He was promoted to assistant editor in 2007, switching his focus from writing to story development, editing, design and other duties. He is a member of NAJA, as well as the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters and Editors, and Society of News Design. Travis earned his journalism degree with a print emphasis in 1999 from Oklahoma City University. While at OCU, he served as editor, assistant editor and sports reporter for the school’s newspaper. He is married to Native Oklahoma publisher Lisa Snell. The couple has two children, Sadie and Swimmer. He is the grandson of original enrollee Swimmer Wesley Snell and Patricia Ann (Roberts) Snell.


09/29/2014 02:31 PM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – The Cherokee Heritage Center was recently named one of the top three Native American experience destinations in the United States, according to USA Today’s readers. New Mexico’s Acoma Pueblo and Taos Pueblo took the first and second place positions respectively with the CHC taking the third. “We are thrilled to be in the top three of such an exceptional list of nominees and are honored to represent Oklahoma on the list,” CHC Executive Director Dr. Candessa Tehee said. “We welcome visitors to experience all we have to offer at the Cherokee Heritage Center, where our mission is to promote and teach Cherokee history, heritage and culture.” The CHC offers exhibits and provides learning experiences about the Cherokee people and their history. The location also offers the living exhibit Diligwa, which was created to replicate how life was in the 1700s for Cherokees. “I’d like to commend the staff for all their hard work, which has resulted in Cherokee Heritage Center being named one of the best Native American experiences in the country,” Principal Chief Bill John Baker said. “This reinforces Cherokee Nation’s position as a major tourist draw, where people can visit our capital and learn about our rich culture and history.” According to a CN Communications press release, all nominees for the categories were selected by a panel of experts, which were of a combination of editors from, editors from USA Today, relevant expert contributors and others. All contest voting is conducted digitally. The 10Best Readers’ Choice Award contest can be found at “USA Today is thrilled to have this method of sharing what 10Best and USA Today readers and users love most,” USA Today Travel Media Group President John Peters said. “Our readers are well-informed, well-traveled and opinionated. At the end of the day, content on our platforms is a reflection of them. A destination, organization or business that finds itself the recipient of a 10Best Readers’ Choice Award has really accomplished something.” According to the press release, works to provide its users with unbiased, original and experimental travel content of top restaurants, attractions and things to do and see in the U.S. and around the world. The sites main content comes from its group of travel experts, who know much about their field and the cities they live in and write about. saw more than 700,000 monthly visitors, which produced approximately 28 million page views in 2012. USA Today later acquired the site in 2013. The Top 10 Best Native American Experiences list can be accessed at <a href="" target="_blank"></a>. For more information, call 1-888-999-6007 or visit <a href="" target="_blank"></a>.
09/24/2014 11:40 AM
PARK HILL, Okla. – Arrowheads, spear points and cutting tools along with jagged pieces of flint rock surround the working area of Diligwa Village Lead Noel Grayson as he explains how to make stone tools using methods passed down for generations. “You have to remember it was tools. If you were a flint knapper you were making tools,” he said. “First and foremost, to make stone tools you have to have stone that knaps, stone that chips off in a sharp edge. What we are going to use are called flint rocks.” He uses the base of deer antlers to hammer away larger pieces of flint rock and then used the tips of the antlers as “pressure flakers” to remove smaller flakes from the rock he is fashioning into a tool. He also uses a “hammer stone” that doubles as a grinding stone to grind off the edges of the tools he makes. “This (flint rock) is all over Cherokee County, but you have to search to find stuff that will work,” he said. In the Cherokee County area there is gray, white and dark blue flint. Grayson, of Tahlequah, said they all “behave” differently, and some flint in the area is too chalky to use. “Chalky flint doesn’t flake good. You want slick flint, stuff that is just as glassy as you can get it,” he said. When he finds the flint rock he wants to use, he buries it under a fire using sand, ashes or dirt as buffer between the fire and rock. “It’s going to change the structure of the rock and make it a lot easier to flake,” he said. “You have to be able to read the rock; you have to be able to see the cracks that are in it. You do not want cracks.” [BLOCKQUOTE]Another essential tool for flint knapping is “a good, thick piece of leather” to protect yourself as you knap the sharp flint rock on your thigh. “This stuff comes off with a razor sharp edge,” Grayson said. He also recommends wearing glasses or goggles because small pieces of flint have been to known to lodge in a person’s eyes as they strike the rock. As he begins to shape the a large piece of flint rock by striking it and knocking larger pieces off with his hammer stone, he continually looks for a spot to hit on the rock. He explained he wants to remove the “bad material” on the rock and begin getting a sharp edge. “If you can do this, you’ve made a stone tool because now you have a sharp edge to do your cutting with,” he said. “I will go around the entire thing removing these flakes. What I’m doing is actually carving a rock by flaking it...until I work this thing down. In the end, what I’m hoping for is just a big blade.” He said numerous stone tools may come off of one large piece of flint rock. Smaller pieces that are knapped off of the flint can be used to make smaller arrow point or cutting or scrapping tools. He added making small points like arrowheads is good practice for learning how to flint knap. After creating a “big blade” or spear point, he uses the hammer stone to grind down the sharp edge to because sharp edges shatter when struck. He emphasizes a flint knapper has to continually grind the flint rock’s edges as he knaps it down to a blade or point. “That is why you grind; the increase your ability to flake the stone,” he said. Grayson added he wants the flint to be sharp in the end, but he doesn’t want to risk shattering it completely before he can work it down to length and width he wants. After grinding the flint, he hits it again with the hammer stone always searching where to hit the flint next. “Every time you take a flake, look at it and see what happened. Don’t just sit on there and beat on it. Take your flakes off individually,” he said. After getting rid of larger flakes, he uses the tip of a deer antler and applies downward pressure to flake off smaller pieces and then continues to grind the flint, hammer it, and shape it until it is finished. “What you want to do is rough it into shape, and then you can do the rest of it with pressure (using the point of a deer antler),” he said. In the past stone tools were not thrown away when they became dull, Grayson said. Their edges were sharpened again and the tools were used “to the point of exhaustion.” The 47-year-old has officially worked at the Cherokee Heritage Center for five years but explained he has been working or volunteering at center since he was in his 20s. During that time he has shared his knowledge of flint knapping, bow and arrow making, how to brain-tan animal hides with many students. “I’ll teach anybody. I’m a recognized master at this within the Cherokee Nation. They’ve bestowed me the Living Treasure award because I do stone tools,” he said. “If anybody is interested in it, I will show them.”
09/23/2014 07:42 AM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – Danielle Culp of Claremore, Okla., is excited about finger weaving. You can hear it in her voice as she explains her finger weaving journey and how she continues to learn more about the craft. Culp has a finger weaving business where she makes custom, colorful belts using yarn. She is also a basket weaver, a pottery maker, traditional storyteller and sings and composes songs in Cherokee, but her main focus is on finger weaving. “I’m a dabbler. I like to do a lot of different things,” the Cherokee citizen said. She prefers finger weaving more than her other interests because there’s not many Cherokee finger weavers, and the art form doesn’t get a lot of attention. She said she would like to bring more attention to traditional Cherokee finger weaving. To be a successful finger weaver takes patience, Culp said. “You can do finger weaving any where. You can tie it (yarn) to a tree branch, you can tie it to a chair; as long as you have a post, you can do finger weaving,” she said. “You just need yarn and a lot of patience.” She explained when she finger weaves belts for people she wants them to choose their own designs and colors, so she rarely pre-makes belts and instead customizes belts for her customers. Depending on the design of the belt, the width of the belt, and the width of the person, a belt can take eight to 40 hours to complete, she said. “So you have to like doing the same motion over and over again and have a lot of patience so that if you do make mistakes you can go back and fix them,” she said. Currently, Culp weaves only belts, but she said finger-woven purses can be made. She said she admires the work of fellow Cherokee artist Karen Berry who finger weaves purses. “I haven’t branched out. I take a lot of personal orders for belts, and I’m actually back ordered right now, so I don’t have a lot of time to branch out and create other projects. My big focus right now is just belts,” she said. Culp said there are drawings from the 1700s of Cherokee men wearing finger-woven belts, and only men wore the belts, tied around their waist, during that time period. Before trading with Europeans for yarn and fabrics, Cherokee women would have used plant fibers like those found inside Mulberry tree bark to make belts. The fibers would have been twisted together to make strands that were dyed before being woven into a belt, Culp said. When trade began with Europeans, Cherokee women began using wool yarn that was already spun and dyed, which was much easier for them. Today she goes to a local crafts store to buy wool, acrylic or cotton yarn for her belts. For art shows, she said she has to use wool yarn. “I prefer acrylic yarn, but I do use wool when people request it,” she said. Filling orders for belts allowed her to make extra money while attending Northeastern State University in Tahlequah. “I could do it on my own time; I could do it in my dorm room. It did help put myself through college, and it’s also helped me make some spare money on the side,” she said. When she was 15, Culp took part in a Youth Leadership Institute seminar and one of the classes she took there was finger weaving that was taught by Cherokee citizen Wade Blevins. “We learned how to do the diagonal pattern. I’m kind of like a sponge. I like to soak things up, so I was really intrigued by finger weaving,” she said. “I got a book, and I learned how to do other designs. I did learn my first design from Wade, but I taught myself the other designs through books that I found. There are different designs you can do, and there are definitely different levels." She said it’s a constant process of learning how to finger weave. “You learn a lot of different things about finger weaving the more and more you do it, so even though I have been doing it almost 10 years, I learn something new every day.” She recently began studying open-face weaving, which is the oldest form of finger weaving done by the Cherokee people, she said. She recently completed her first belt and garter set using open-face weaving or a single weave. Cherokee artist and Executive Director of the Cherokee Heritage Center Candessa Tehee taught Culp this type of weaving. Tehee is a self-taught finger weaver. “I really love to finger weave, and I really love to teach people who want to learn,” Tehee said. “I have been researching and looking at older styles of finger weaving, and I noticed to do the patterns and styles that I want to do, I would have to learn how to do oblique or open-face weaving. It wasn’t something I knew how to do, so I picked up a book and figured it out. Once I figured it out I immediately began practicing it.” She added she then met Culp and saw that “she had a huge love of finger weaving.” She showed Culp how to do open-face weaving and taught her that open-face weaving is the only way to add beads to a belt design to add color. “Knowing there are other people out there keeping this tradition alive is really exciting,” Tehee said. Culp has worked at the Cherokee Heritage Center for three summer seasons. During her first summer she learned how to make pottery. During the last two summer seasons she has been a tour guide and the principal finger weaver in the Diligwa Village, which is a Cherokee village set in the early 1700s. “It was really nice to have that job because I could finger weave, and I could educate people that visit our Heritage Center from all over the world about our traditional textiles,” she said “It also gave me the opportunity to teach other people. So over the past two summers I taught five to six girls how to do finger weaving.” Culp said it was instilled in her to pass on the knowledge she receives from other artists. She added she tries to instill in the girls she teaches that they also need to pass on their knowledge of finger weaving. “If I’m a finger weaver and I finger weave the rest of my life and I don’t teach anyone else, I really don’t leave a legacy. I can leave beautiful belts behind, but when I pass on there’s no one else to fulfill that legacy,” she said.
09/18/2014 03:21 PM
MUSKOGEE, Okla. –Conservationists recently joined forces to clean and preserve Native artifacts, art and archives at Bacone College’s Ataloa Lodge Museum during a recent artifact and art preservation event weekend. The three-day weekend event was funded by the Oklahoma Heritage Trust and the Oklahoma Department of Libraries and Museums and had a team of fine art, paper, basket and textile conservators. The conservators observed the various collections, performed minor conservation treatments, re-housed items with other materials, which met museum and archival standards, and constructed a plan for future care of the items. For more information about the project or to contribute to the maintenance of collections at Bacone College, call 918-781-7223.
09/17/2014 11:37 AM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – On Oct. 2-3, students will have the opportunity to interact at the Cherokee Heritage Center and learn about Cherokee history as part of Ancient Cherokee Days. “This is a great opportunity for children to learn about ancient Cherokee life in a fun, interactive way,” CHC Education Director Tonia Weavel said. “When they leave Cherokee Heritage Center, they will have a better understanding of what life was like for Cherokees 300 years ago.” The event is set in an outdoor classroom setting for students in grades kindergarten through 12 and is for public, private and homeschooled children. The event is primarily held inside Diligwa, which is the CHC’s authentic recreation of Cherokee life in the early 1700s. There are many Cherokee cultural learning stations available throughout the grounds that feature chunkey, marbles, stickball, blowguns and language. The outdoor cultural classes also feature interactive curriculum and games centered on Cherokee lifestyle in the early 18th century, including craft demonstrations in pottery making, basket weaving, food grinding, weapons or tool making and language. Admission to Ancient Cherokee Days is $5 per student. Accompanying adults are free. Face painting, which represents Cherokee tattoos from the early 1700s, is offered at $1 per design. Admission also includes tours of the Cherokee National Museum, the Trail of Tears exhibit and Adams Corner. Picnic tables are available for guests bringing lunches. The CHC has ample parking for school buses and private vehicles. The Murrell Home, one-half mile south, has additional picnic and playground areas. Registration for Ancient Cherokee Days begins at 9:30 a.m. The event will occur rain or shine, with an established curriculum in place for inclement weather that allows students to continue to enjoy the stations. For more information, call Weavel at 918-456-6007 or email <a href="mailto:"></a>.
09/15/2014 04:04 PM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – Four Cherokee Nation citizens were given the designations of Cherokee National Treasure during an Aug. 28 ceremony in the Sequoyah High School gym. “Our 2014 awardees all exemplify the values that we hold dear as Cherokee people and they advance our culture in their respective disciplines,” said Principal Chief Bill John Baker. “Each and every one of these honorees deserves our deepest respect and gratitude. Their positive influence propels us all, as Cherokee people, forward.” David Comingdeer was named Cherokee Nation Treasure for his stickball stick making. He has been crafting his handmade sticks for 22 years from hickory wood that he cuts and then shapes using heat to make the wood flexible. He said he takes great care to perpetuate the art in the ways of his ancestors. Comingdeer’s family has lived in both Adair and Cherokee counties since their arrival in Indian Territory. He resides in the community of Spade Mountain, where he cultivates a pine tree plantation. Comingdeer is of the Paint Clan and is a member of the Echota Ground at Park Hill where he is head chief. He and his children have an active ceremonial life and spend much of their time traveling to ceremonial stomp dances across eastern Oklahoma. A lifelong resident of the CN, Clesta J. Manley was born on her father’s allotment land on the banks of the Grand River. For 30 years, Manley has shared Cherokee culture and art with the Indian Women’s Pocahontas Club where she encourages members to learn more about history and culture. She started drawing at age 9 and continues to paint in a variety of media. Manley has participated in exhibitions throughout the state, won numerous awards, as well as a grant for a month to paint in Italy provided by the University of Tulsa Art Department. She has participated in juried shows at Philbrook Art Museum, Gilcrease Art Museum, Walton Art Center and the Cherokee Homecoming Art Show. Eddie Morrison, a native of Tahlequah, is a contemporary sculptor who has worked in wood and stone for 38 years. He is a graduate of the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, N.M. Morrison often uses red cedar in his works for the variations in color provided by the wood. Another favored material is Kansas limestone that he collects himself. Much of this limestone contains fossils from a prehistoric sea that once covered much of North America. These fossils are often visible in the rough portions of Morrison’s stone sculptures. Morrison’s works are featured at the Department of Interior Building in Washington, D.C., on the Chisholm Trail monument at the Kansas-Oklahoma border, as well as in permanent collections throughout the country. Cherokee language specialist John Ross is a native of Greasy and a translation specialist for the tribe’s Education Services. Ross previously worked as a research analyst and grant writer for CN Community Services and served eight years as chief and four years as treasurer for the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians. Ross is bilingual and speaks Cherokee as a primary language. He serves as chairman of the Ethnobotany Publications board, which focuses on Cherokee cultural-environmental issues and is dedicated to the preservation of tribal environmental knowledge. Ross also serves on the Cherokee Elders Council. In 2013, Ross received the Perry Aunko Indigenous Language Preservation Award from the Greater Tulsa Area Indian Affairs Commission.