Hawaiian professors help with language preservation

BY Phoenix Archives
03/12/2004 11:50 AM
Reprinted with permission from Muskogee Phoenix

By Julie Hubbard

Phoenix Staff Writer
TULSA, Okla. – The couple credited with salvaging the Hawaiian language is now helping another culture revive its dying language.

Kaunanoe Kamana and William H. Wilson, professors of Hawaiian studies and language at the University of Hawaii-Hilo and founders of “Aha Punana Leo”— immersion preschools throughout Hawaii that teach kids to be fluent speakers — were in Tulsa recently giving tips to a group of Cherokees so they can save their vanishing language.

“It’s very important to have our language,” Kamana said. “It’s the core of identity and culture.”

Through their revitalization efforts, 2,000 kids are fluent Hawaiian speakers. And now, the Cherokees, who have no fluent speakers under the age of 40, are using this model to beef up their programs, building a four-year degree program with Northeastern State University in Tahlequah to offer Cherokee language teaching degrees and eventually expand their immersion schools.

In the early 1800s, missionaries went into the string of small Pacific islands known as Hawaii. The newcomers formed schools that taught the native language, and eventually more than 100 Hawaiian-language newspapers were established.

“At one time we had the highest literacy rate in the country,” Kamana said. “But when our government was overthrown, laws were established to break up the culture.”

In 1896, American businessmen created a bill dictating that English be the official language of Hawaii and that it should be the language taught in schools. Hawaiian language lessons ceased — until Kamana and Wilson came along.

“So what caused this resurgence?” Wilson asked. “There was this Hawaiian renaissance going on in the early ’70s. People wanted to be Hawaiian more.”

Wilson and Kamana had just graduated from the University of Hawaii, which taught classes in Hawaiian but didn’t offer it as a degree program.

“No one was graduating speaking it fluently,” Wilson said.

So Kamana and Wilson stepped in and led a rebirth movement. They started a radio program in Hawaiian. They and a core group of college students started working with fluent elders, even living with them to immerse themselves in the language.

Wilson and Kamana decided to speak Hawaiian at home, without using any English. Then they had a son, whom they raised to speak only Hawaiian.

“Then we wanted our children to go to schools that taught Hawaiian,” Wilson said.

And they found others wanted it, too, so they started an immersion preschool.

“The first one failed because teachers didn’t push the language,” he said.

But they tried again. They called it “Aha Punana Leo,” meaning “language nest.”

Due to growing demand, the first public immersion school started in 1984 in the community of Kekaha. In 1987, after pushing lawmakers, a bill was passed to require bringing the language back into schools. From there, a middle school and high school were started. The community started speaking the language and parents even took classes to speak to their children, Wilson said.

“We were even shocked to see the progress,” he said.

Although many, including officials of the Department of Education, thought kids at the immersion school would fall behind in English, kids there began testing out higher than those in the other public schools, Wilson said.

Hawaii now has 12 immersion pre-schools and a host of public schools. Some who have graduated from high school have gone on to get a language teaching degree from the University of Hawaii-Hilo, he said.

“It (revitalization) can happen,” he said. “We worked with the people who wanted it and went from there.”

Cherokee Tribal Couniclor Johnny Keener says the Cherokee language started to taper off in the 1940s when schools and employers told American Indians they should speak English to be successful. And now, 64 percent of the roughly 240,000 Cherokee tribal members have never learned Cherokee. Only 4 percent of Cherokees use the language in their homes, according to a 2002 study.

“Our goal is 50 years from now to have 80 percent (fluent) speakers,” said Wyman Kirk, a strategic planner for the tribe. “If this is just the Cherokee Nation wanting this, it will never happen. We need the Cherokee language in the schools and in the communities.”

Through a federal grant, the tribe is working with the Eastern Band of Cherokees in North Carolina, the Hawaiians, the University of Kansas Anthropology and Linguistics Department, the University of Oklahoma Anthropology Department, Northeastern State University, the Cherokee Nation Child Development Center, Lost City schools and members of the community to rekindle the language.

The Cherokees have two immersion preschool classrooms and a kindergarten class at Lost City and are networking with other rural schools to someday offer the classes. The Cherokee Cultural Resource Center, which is overseeing the language revitalization, has created the Cherokee lexicon, a dictionary of more than 7,000 Cherokee words, which should be released soon.

Fluent speakers soon will be able to get formal training to teach, just as teachers of foreign languages do.

NSU is partnering with the tribe to offer a bachelor of education degree for Cherokee language teachers within the next year, said Kay Grant, NSU dean and associate professor of education.

“It’s only logical that NSU should be the one to step up,” Grant said.

The tribe also is offering language classes in the community and on its Web site, even drawing interest from people in Russia and the former Czechoslovakia, Kirk said.

Other initiatives include offering bonuses to Cherokee Nation employees who learn to speak the language and using Cherokee on road signs and in tribal health clinics.

“It’s going to happen — we’ll find a way,” Dusty Delso, Cherokee Nation executive director of education, said of reviving the Cherokee language. He said the experts are there, the interest is there, and now is time for action. “We have to find that core group of people who are dedicated and make it happen.”

News

BY STAFF REPORTS
03/03/2015 03:11 PM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – Regardless of inclement weather expected to hit Tahlequah Tuesday night, the Election Commission’s Election Services Office will open on Wednesday to allow candidates to file for the June 27 election. Election Director Connie Parnell said Cherokee Nation election law states that March 2-5 are the four days that are designated for filing. The filing period for candidates closes at 5 p.m. March 5. “This office will be open tomorrow even if Cherokee Nation is not,” she said. According to News On 6 Tulsa’s weather forecast, Tahlequah is expected to get rain Tuesday evening, which will turn into freezing rain and sleet during overnight with anywhere from 2-6 inches of snow expected by Wednesday morning. Thursday is expected to be sunny with a high of 35 degrees. Registered voters residing outside the CN jurisdiction who wish to vote by absentee ballot may fill out an absentee ballot request to be processed from Feb. 2 to May 8. Absentee ballot requests will be available at the Election Services Office and online at www.cherokee.org/elections. The EC will mail absentee ballots May 26-27. Voter registration will close March 31. To print a voter registration form online visit www.cherokee.org/elections or pick up one in person at the Election Services Office. Citizens can request to have one sent by email or fax. Also, voters with address changes, name changes or any changed information will need to submit a new voter registration application, according to the release. The Election Services Office is from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday. It’s located at 22116 S. Bald Hill Road. For more information call 918-458-5899.
BY STAFF REPORTS
03/03/2015 02:00 PM
SOUTH COFFEYVILLE, Okla. – On March 5, Cherokee Nation and Cherokee Nation Entertainment officials will celebrate the opening of the Cherokee Casino South Coffeyville, which is expected to bring more than 100 new jobs to the area. CNE, the tribe’s gaming arm, broke ground on the 17,000-square-foot facility in August. The $10 million development offers 300 electronic games and a dining venue featuring lunch, dinner and cocktail options. CNE currently operates Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Tulsa, eight Cherokee Casinos, a horse racing track, three hotels, three golf courses and other retail operations. The public ribbon cutting and opening celebration will be held at 2 p.m. at the facility located off Highway 169 south of South Coffeyville.
BY JAMI MURPHY
Reporter
03/03/2015 10:26 AM
COLUMBIA, S.C. – John Shurr, a Cherokee Nation citizen and longtime free press advocate and Cherokee Phoenix Editorial Board member, died at his South Carolina home on March 1 at age 67. Shurr had served on the Editorial Board since 2000, with much time as board chairman. Cherokee Phoenix Executive Editor Bryan Pollard said he had a “handful of mentors” in his career and Shurr was one of them and the most influential. “He was unwavering in his dedication to ensuring press freedoms and access to information in both mainstream and tribal media,” Pollard said. “He was a dedicated journalist and passionate advocate for the truth, but most importantly, he was a good man. He was a proud Cherokee and understood the importance of a free press in Cherokee society. His contributions to the Cherokee Phoenix are indelible. He will be sorely missed.” [BLOCKQUOTE]Former Principal Chief Chad Smith said Shurr was influential in developing the CN Independent Press Act. In 1999 following the tribe’s Constitutional Crisis, it became apparent the value of a newspaper that was independent, Smith said. In determining how the free press act should read, he said Shurr was heavily involved in ensuring language that would allow the press to remain independent. “So I think he was key. While many of us had the general sentiment, he had the experience as a practitioner to give us guidance,” he said. The act’s language, Smith said, was picked up from various free press acts and Shurr was supportive with the legislation written because he knew there was a need for the press act. To the Editorial Board, Smith said Shurr brought experience and professionalism. “We looked for the best qualified Cherokee newspaperman we could find, and having been a bureau chief of AP (Associated Press) and with his experiences, it was very simple decision to make as to how he could benefit the Nation and be sure that the paper could remain independent,” he said. Former board member Jason Terrell said he worked with Shurr at the Native American Journalists Association in the late 1990s and served five years with him on the Phoenix board. “His passion for freedom of the press was unbridled and that passion extended to his immense contributions to the creation and protection of Cherokee Nation’s free press act,” Terrell said. “A Vietnam veteran, he didn’t shy away from confronting the opponents of freedom head on. The mainstream press and the tribal press have both lost a fierce advocate for the First Amendment, and those who knew him best have lost a good friend. Rest in Peace, John. You’ve definitely earned it.” Aside from his work in tribal media, Shurr was dedicated to openness in all media. In the more than 20 years that Shurr led South Carolina’s AP bureau, he continually supported the need for openness and transparency in public records and agencies and in courts. According to the AP, in 1988, the state Supreme Court unanimously voted to refuse to allow cameras or tape recorders in courtrooms. But Shurr did not waver in his commitment to transparency in the courtroom. He continued to speak to judges, lawyers and journalists about the importance of an open government. “At the time, South Carolina was one of a handful of states that didn’t allow journalists to have electronic equipment in courtrooms,” the AP states. “In 1992, largely due to Shurr’s efforts, South Carolina courts began a six-month experiment allowing cameras in the courts. Today, having cameras in the courtrooms is commonplace.” Bill Rogers, executive director of the South Carolina Press Association, said if it were not for Shurr, courtrooms in South Carolina may have still been without cameras and recording devices today. Jay Bender, press association lawyer and University of South Carolina media law professor, said many people may have not know his name, but information was out there for the public because of his efforts in South Carolina. “…But every day our people get information about officials and records they wouldn’t have otherwise had if it hadn’t been for the right-to-know fights he led,” Bender said. Shurr also created a scholarship in his name with the Cherokee Nation Foundation. It’s available to a graduate or undergraduate CN citizen who has been accepted in an accredited journalism or mass communications degree program. The student chosen for this scholarship also must apply for an eight-week, paid, summer internship with the Cherokee Phoenix. Cherokee Phoenix Reporter Tesina Jackson O’Field was the first recipient of this scholarship. “In 2009, John selected me as the first recipient of the John Shurr Journalism Award, which essentially started my career with the Cherokee Phoenix. I was about to graduate from college and unsure of the journalism world that lie ahead of me, but he saw something in me that I did not,” Jackson O’Field said. “He took a chance on me, something that I have been truly thankful for. I only hope that I have made him proud.” Shurr talked to the Cherokee Phoenix in 2009 about his scholarship and why he started it. “It’s very rewarding for me to be able to help get a young Cherokee journalist educated and also make available to them an opportunity at our newspaper,” he said. Shurr retired from the AP in 2007. He was married to Debbie Ashe Shurr. Visitation at the family residence is set for 5 p.m. to 7 p.m. on March 4. A memorial service will be March 5 at 2 p.m. at Incarnation Lutheran Church in Columbia. A private burial will be held at a later date at the Beaufort National Cemetery. Dunbar Funeral Home-Devine in Columbia is handling the services. <strong>JOHN C. SHURR</strong> Born: March 15, 1947, in Muskogee, Oklahoma <strong>Newspaper History:</strong> • Executive editor of the Oklahoma Daily, the student newspaper at the University of Oklahoma • Muskogee Phoenix, 1966 • Norman Transcript, 1970-1973 • Chicago assistant bureau chief • Oklahoma Associated Press bureau chief, 1981-1984 • South Carolina Associated Press bureau chief, 1984-2007 • South Carolina Press Association FOI chairman, 1986-2009 • Native American Journalists Association member, 20+ years • Cherokee Phoenix Editorial Board chairman, 2000 to present <strong>Honors and Awards:</strong> • SCPA Distinguished Service Award • 2 SCPA FOI Awards • Order of the Palmetto • Gavel Award from the American Bar Association • Elias Boudinot Award • Navy Presidential Unit Citations (2) • Navy Unit Commendations (2) • Combat Action Ribbon • Battle Efficiency Awards (3) • Vietnam Gallantry Cross • Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal • Vietnam Service Medal (3 bronze stars) <strong>Education:</strong> B.A. in journalism from the University of Oklahoma <strong>Military Service:</strong> U.S. Navy <strong>Family:</strong> Debbie, his wife – Courtesy of The S.C. Press Association <strong>Remembrances of those who knew him</strong> “You were the first to encourage me to set my sights on becoming an editor. I scoffed then. That was 10 years ago. But look what happened. You were right, sir. We all have it in us to become more that what we aspire to. Walk softly into that good night.” – Lisa Snell, Native Oklahoma and Native Times publisher “I am so saddened at the news that a good friend, John Shurr, has passed. He was one of a handful of mentors I could always count on to steer me in the right direction. Rest in peace dear friend, rest in peace. This is a great loss to our media family.” – Shannon Shaw Duty, Osage News editor “John was also a mentor to many a young journalist. He was dedicated to making sure that the next generation was prepared to take on the challenges of defending a free press and we are all better for his efforts.” – Jason Terrell, former Cherokee Phoenix Editorial Board member “He had impeccable comedic timing and always delivered a one-liner when things got stressful in the newsroom. He assigned me an ‘unofficial’ mentor at one point. It was a homeless man with a sign asking for money for beer, pot and hookers. ‘Hey, at least I’m honest,’ the sign read. RIP John Shurr.” – Jacob Jordan, friend and former colleague “John was always there whenever I needed him. When I had computer troubles, he would jokingly say it must be operator error. He came to Columbia the first year I started working for The Greenville News. He followed my work and when I moved to Columbia, he and Lou Krasky gave me a job as a freelancer, which later turned into a staff post in Greenville. My first assignment for the AP was when Pope John Paul II came to Columbia, and I got the front page of The New York Times. Thank you, John and Lou for giving me the greatest time of my life. Peace be with you.” – Mary Ann Chastain, friend “RIP John Shurr. You were a great captain and trusted friend. ‘Fair winds and following seas and long may your big jib draw!’ God speed my friend.” – Ken Elmore, friend “My longtime mentor, friend and primary reason I got my foot in the journalism door 10 years ago has passed away. John Shurr always believed in me and frequently checked in on me and my family. He gave me one of my first opportunities when I worked with him and a newsroom of amazing people in Columbia, South Carolina in 2005. He had a wonderful sense of humor and will be missed by many. Rest in peace, my friend. Thank you for all the wonderful stories and memories.” – Christina Good Voice, Mvskoke Media interim director and Communications manager “John Shurr was a Cherokee citizen who dedicated his life to advancing the profession of journalism. John served his country with distinction in the military and was a servant to the Cherokee people on the Phoenix Editorial Board. His work and patriotism will long be remembered. Our thoughts and prayers are with his family.” – Principal Chief Bill John Baker “The people of the Cherokee Nation and beyond owe a great debt to John Shurr. He was a gatekeeper for truthful communication, a career journalist. In the years I knew of him and had the honor of working with him, on the Cherokee Phoenix Editorial Board, John always spoke and wrote quietly, yet passionately, in defense of the people’s right to know and the people’s right to have a voice in the quest for self-governance, political challenges aside. John’s legacy is now the charge for those fortunate enough to have served under his mentorship. It is a charge that must not be taken lightly as it is endorsed by the Creator of all things who tells us this: Truth goes forth and does not return void; Truth always accomplishes that which it intends; Those who embrace the Truth will prosper. Thank you, John. Do na da’ go hv i (until we meet again). – Clarice Doyle, former Cherokee Phoenix Editorial Board member
BY STAFF REPORTS
03/02/2015 04:00 PM
WASHINGTON – The National Congress of American Indians Executive Council Winter Session announced that the White House invited tribal leaders to join the Generation Indigenous challenge. The Gen-I challenge is an initiative that focuses on building a bright future for Native youth. “The White House is inviting tribal leaders to take concrete steps to engage with Native youth in their communities, including working with or creating a youth council, hosting a joint meeting between youth and tribal leaders or partnering with youth to plan a program to support positive change in their community,” NCAI stated in a release. According to the release, seven tribes have accepted the Gen-I challenge, the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, Central Council of Tlingit and Haida Tribes of Alaska, Gila River Indian Community, Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin, Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians, Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians and Three Affiliated Tribes. “Existing elements of the Gen-I challenge include the recently launched Cabinet officials’ Native Youth Listening Tour and a steering committee of Native youth to plan the first ever White House Tribal Youth Gathering,” the release states.
BY STAFF REPORTS
03/02/2015 02:00 PM
During the 6 p.m. Dec. 15, 2014 Tribal Council meeting, Councilors discussed: • AN ACT AMENDING LEGISLATIVE ACT #24-14 AUTHORIZING THE COMPREHENSIVE CAPITAL BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2015 - MOD. 1; AND DECLARING AN EMERGENCY Councilor Taylor moved to approve. Councilor Vazquez seconded the motion. Councilors Byrd, Garvin, Cowan Watts, Buzzard, Fullbright and Snell requested to be added as sponsors. The motion carried by acclimation. • AN ACT AMENDING LEGISLATIVE ACT #25-14 AUTHORIZING THE COMPREHENSIVE OPERATING BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2015 - MOD. 4; AND DECLARING AN EMERGENCY Councilor Taylor moved to approve. Councilor Hargis seconded the motion. Councilors Byrd, Vazquez Garvin, Snell, Cowan Watts, and Buzzard requested to be added as sponsors. The motion to approve carried by acclimation. ...and more. <a href="http://www.cherokeephoenix.org/Docs/2015/3/8988_Dec15_2015CoucilMinutes.pdf" target="_blank">Click here to read</a> the Dec. 15, 2014 meeting minutes. <a href="https://cherokee.legistar.com/DepartmentDetail.aspx?ID=3301&GUID=C557BD6A-E296-4A30-BF3E-2035FF8607CC&Mode=MainBody" target="_blank">Click here to view</a> the Dec. 15, 2014 Tribal Council meeting video.
BY WILL CHAVEZ
Senior Reporter
03/02/2015 12:00 PM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – In February, the Cherokee Phoenix requested compensation amounts for all Cherokee Nation-affiliated boards and commissions through the tribe’s Freedom of Information Act. Some boards such as the tribe’s five-member Home Health Services board is not compensated for meeting monthly. The board includes Chairman Freddie Ferrell and members Debra Proctor, Dr. Roger Montgomery, Elmer Tadpole and Connie Davis. The tribe’s Election Commission is responsible for running the tribe’s elections and each commissioner receives a monthly $500 stipend and $100 per meeting. The five-member commission also receives an hourly pay rate of $30. Commissioners are Chairman Bill W. Horton and Co-Chairwoman Teresa Hart and members Shawna Calico, Carolyn Allen and Martha Calico. The Gaming Commission oversees gaming regulations and standards, and its commissioners receive a $1,500 stipend each month, mileage rate of 55 cents per mile and paid travel. Commissioners are Jennifer Goins, Shannon Fisher, Steve Barrick, Ruth Ann Weaver and Chairwoman Stacy Leeds. The three members of the Tax Commission are paid $700 per month and meet quarterly in Tahlequah. Commissioners Jim Hummingbird, Steve Wilson and Chris Carter are responsible for rules regulating car tag operations and tax revenue from tribally operated businesses. The Administrative Appeals Board hears appeals made by employees who have been terminated from their jobs. The three-member board receives $600 per meeting and a $200 monthly stipend. They also receive 55 cents per mile for traveling to meetings. Board members are James Cosby and Nathan Barnard. One seat is vacant. The Waste Management board is responsible for oversight of the tribe’s landfill and meets monthly. Chairwoman Fan Robinson receives a monthly stipend of $1,500 while board members Shawn Shepard and Luanne Collins receive $1,000 each. Board members also receive 55 cents per mile in travel expenses. Comprehensive Care Agency board members receive no compensation for serving. The members, which oversee the Programs for All-inclusive Care for the Elderly and Elder Care, are Chairwoman Janie Dibble and Dr. Roger Montgomery, Elmer Tadpole and Connie Davis. There is one vacant seat. The five-member Economic Development Trust Authority is also not paid for its work, according to the FOIA response. EDTA members are Mike Crawley, Johnnie Earp, Pamela Bickford, Glendon Watkins and Brian Hartley. The Environmental Protection Commission meets monthly in Tahlequah and administers environmental rules and regulations. Its five members are Marty Matlock, Ed Fite, Lynna Carson, Jack Spears and Blake Fletcher. They are paid $500 per meeting. Cherokee Nation Foundation board members, who oversee a scholarship program that includes scholarships established by CN citizens and others, are not compensated. Its six members are Tonya Rozell, Carole Richmond, Leroy Qualls, Patsi Nix Smith, Amber George and Susan Chapman Plumb. CN Community Association Corporation members are also not paid for their service. The five-member board currently has one vacancy and its members are Dawnena Mackey, Jacquie Archambeau, Ron Qualls, and Robin Smith. The board supports the efforts of Cherokee community groups that are tribally affiliated. The Registration Committee works on registration concerns and is compensated $250 per monthly meeting. Members include Registrar Linda O’Leary and Farrell Prater. In January, the Tribal Council voted to fill the committee vacancy with Carrie Philpot. She has yet to be confirmed. The Phoenix requested the compensation for the Cherokee Nation Businesses board of directors but was denied. According to the FOIA response, the information is exempt from public disclosure. “In response to your request, the information requested is exempt from disclosure pursuant to Cherokee Nation Legislative Act 16-14, 105(A)(6), which states: ‘all salary compensation paid by public bodies to individuals by authorized positions as classified by Cherokee Nation laws or Executive and Legislative Human Resources or Personnel Policies and Procedures. The annual budgets shall contain such position listings without the names of the individual holding such positions,’” states the FOIA response. The Phoenix attempted to get a clarification from CNB officials for why board compensation could not be disclosed but did not receive a response. According to a 2010 story, the CNB board chair received $72,000 annually while other members’ base pay ranged from $24,000 to $54,000. According to the story, as part of the base pay, each member served on at least one committee, but members also received $12,000 for each additional committee on which they served. The story also states committee chairs received an additional $6,000 annually and that Executive Committee members received an additional $12,000 annually except the board chairman, who forewent any Executive Committee compensation.