Cherokee Nation Translation Specialist John Ross explains how to use the numeric system created by Sequoyah. WILL CHAVEZ/CHEROKEE PHOENIX

Sequoyah’s numeric system makes comeback

A 2013 calendar written in the Cherokee syllabary includes the year 2013 written in Sequoyah’s numeric system, which was recently deciphered by the Cherokee Nation Translation Department. COURTESY PHOTO This handwritten copy of Sequoyah’s numeric system was created by Translation Specialist John Ross to show how the system works. COURTESY PHOTO
A 2013 calendar written in the Cherokee syllabary includes the year 2013 written in Sequoyah’s numeric system, which was recently deciphered by the Cherokee Nation Translation Department. COURTESY PHOTO
BY WILL CHAVEZ
Senior Reporter
11/09/2012 08:42 AM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – A visit by linguist Michael Everson of Dublin, Ireland, in September set in motion an effort to revisit and study Cherokee linguist Sequoyah’s numeric system.

During his visit, Everson met with Cherokee linguists and other language specialists to discuss making a font for Sequoyah’s numeric system for printing and computers, Cherokee Nation Translation Specialist John Ross said.

Everson told Ross and other translators that a system would have to be created before a font could be made. Following Everson’s visit, Ross studied Sequoyah’s numeric system and figured it out in less than two days.
“If somebody really looked at it, it’s simple,” Ross said.

Like he did when matching sounds spoken in the Cherokee language with symbols, Sequoyah created unique, single symbols for numbers 1 through 19 and numbers 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100. So to create the number 31 the symbol for 30 and 1 would be used together. To create the number 500 the symbol for 5 and 100 would be used together.

Ross created a symbol for 0 and for 1 billion and 1 trillion. Sequoyah’s system enabled users to create numerals up to 1 million.

The Cherokee Language Consortium, comprised of Cherokee speakers from the CN, Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and the United Keetoowah Band, agreed in October to use Sequoyah’s numeric system as he wrote it and to add the symbols Ross created.

“They thought it was pretty neat,” Ross said.

Ross said the only reason he found as to why Sequoyah’s numeric system, created in 1830 in Indian Territory, was never used by the tribe is that some people thought the system was too complicated.

“Really, if you look at it, it’s a shortcut. You don’t have to add all those numbers for a million. Like for a billion, you just have those (three) symbols instead of all those zeros,” he said.

CN Language Technologist Joseph Erb said he believes because Cherokees were already trading with the French, Spanish and British when the system was invented, Arabic numbers were used instead of Sequoyah’s system.

The way that Cherokees count is how Sequoyah built his system, Erb said.

“So, it makes more sense in Cherokee. It’s a neat system, it’s a very Cherokee system, and it’s really nice the translation team made sure to figure out how it works,” he said.

Sequoyah’s numbers have been added to the 2013 Cherokee calendar. Another use for the numeric system would be to teach it to the Cherokee Language Immersion School students, Ross said.

Ultimately, the goal for Erb and the language technology staff is to turn the numeric system into fonts, a “slow process,” Erb said, possibly taking two years before the system appears on smart phones and computer systems.

“It (numeric system) has to be in the Unicode system, so what will have to happen is we’ll have to figure out how the numbering system works, and then we’ll have to have a paper written for it to be encoded into the Unicode system,” he said.

Unicode enables people around the world to use computers in any language. The Cherokee numeric system would have to be turned into a code that computers could read and analyze so the proper Cherokee font for 12, for instance, is displayed.

After that is done, the coded language must go before the international Unicode Consortium for approval. If the consortium approves the code, it’s up to computer companies to adopt the new code, Erb said.

The tribe worked with Everson in the 1990s to put the Cherokee syllabary into code, which was adopted by the Unicode Consortium in 2000. His main area of expertise is with world writing systems, specifically in the representation of these systems in formats for computer and digital media.

“Only few people know how to do this type of work. It’s a very specialty type of work. Michael has done several hundred languages,” Erb said. “For us in language technology, it’s pretty exciting to see us reintroduce a numbering system, and it will be easy to use. Our goal is to make it accessible to everybody.”

will-chavez@cherokee.org


918-207-3961

About the Author
Will lives in Tahlequah, Okla., but calls Marble City, Okla., his hometown. He is Cherokee and San Felipe Pueblo and grew up learning the Cherokee language, traditions and culture from his Cherokee mother and family. He also appreciates his father’s Pueblo culture and when possible attends annual traditional dances held on the San Felipe Reservation near Albuquerque, N.M.

He enjoys studying and writing about Cherokee history and culture and writing stories about Cherokee veterans. For Will, the most enjoyable part of writing for the Cherokee Phoenix is having the opportunity to meet Cherokee people from all walks of life.
He earned a mass communications degree in 1993 from Northeastern State University with minors in marketing and psychology. He is a member of the Native American Journalists Association.

Will has worked in the newspaper and public relations field for 20 years. He has performed public relations work for the Cherokee Nation and has been a reporter and a photographer for the Cherokee Phoenix for more than 18 years.
WILL-CHAVEZ@cherokee.org • 918-207-3961
Will lives in Tahlequah, Okla., but calls Marble City, Okla., his hometown. He is Cherokee and San Felipe Pueblo and grew up learning the Cherokee language, traditions and culture from his Cherokee mother and family. He also appreciates his father’s Pueblo culture and when possible attends annual traditional dances held on the San Felipe Reservation near Albuquerque, N.M. He enjoys studying and writing about Cherokee history and culture and writing stories about Cherokee veterans. For Will, the most enjoyable part of writing for the Cherokee Phoenix is having the opportunity to meet Cherokee people from all walks of life. He earned a mass communications degree in 1993 from Northeastern State University with minors in marketing and psychology. He is a member of the Native American Journalists Association. Will has worked in the newspaper and public relations field for 20 years. He has performed public relations work for the Cherokee Nation and has been a reporter and a photographer for the Cherokee Phoenix for more than 18 years.

Culture

BY JAMI MURPHY
Reporter
04/17/2015 08:00 AM
PARK HILL, Okla. – The Cherokee Heritage Center’s archives for 2-D and 3-D collections are in dire need of a new storage location, CHC officials said. At a March 26 Tribal Council meeting, CHC Director Candessa Tehee said the archives located at the center have four threats working against them: temperature, humidity, light and pests. Unfortunately, temperature is a threat that CHC Curator Mikel Yantz and the center’s interim archivist cannot currently control, Tehee said. Yantz, who runs the permanent collections as well as the temporary and permanent exhibits in the museum, said the museum’s basement houses the archives and collections. “We have two separate areas downstairs. One is for archives, which is where we have our two-dimensional objects – so newspapers, letters and photographs,” he said. “We also have a separate area for collections, and that’s our three-dimensional objects – so pottery, basketry and stickball sticks. Anything that need to be put on larger shelves.” He said temperature control is the biggest concern when trying to preserve and maintain the archives and collections. “The building that we have wasn’t created four decades ago to sustain the temperature and humidity, so we’re looking forward to trying to fix that by possibly having a new building,” Yantz said. “If you have a higher temperature and higher humidity, it’s very susceptible to fabric or porous materials like wood and especially paper because what it will do is it will increase the moisture, and so it will start growing mold and start deteriorating those much faster than if it was a cooler temperature.” The average temperature for the basement is about 70 degrees, which Yantz says is too high. He said the humidity is OK in the winter, but in the summer as the humidity climbs so does the possibility of damage to the archives and collections. He said the ideal temperature is 60 degrees with 40 percent humidity. “And sometimes it fluctuates here in the building with the temperature outside,” Yantz said. “And as we know in Oklahoma, the temperature ranges from 20 to 120 (degrees) sometimes. And for us to sustain that year-round isn’t possible with what we have.” Yantz said space is another issue facing the CHC archives and collections. “We’re looking to create is around 7,000 square feet, which would double our size, but we’re also going to make sure that building is expandable so when we grow that room and building can grow with us,” he said. “The building will be right next to this museum. So if we need to transfer anything from that building to our exhibit area – because we do display a lot of our archives and collections – we’ll be able to do that and keep the document safe.” Tehee said there have been two recommendations. One is to refurbish the interior of the basement with the other being to build and on-site, metal-fabricated building that would be double the size of the basement. Yantz said the Cherokee National Historical Society board, which governs the CHC, is raising money through granting agencies and possibly the Cherokee Nation and Cherokee Nation Businesses with hopes of creating a new storage area. Yantz said the CHC’s mission is to preserve, promote and teach the Cherokee history and culture. “And the documents and objects that we have here and that we preserve at the museum support that mission. It’s vital to make sure that these last for generations,” he added.
BY STAFF REPORTS
04/15/2015 02:00 PM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – Cherokee Nation Cultural Tourism and Preservation Oklahoma are partnering to teach people how to restore historical remains etched in stone. Professional gravestone and masonry conservator Jonathan Appell, member of the Preservation Trades Network, will lead the gravestone conservation workshop from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on May 7-8 at the Tahlequah Public Cemetery. An expert in cemetery preservation planning, Appell will lead the interactive training while covering topics on how to reset stones, repair fragmented stones, repoint and clean masonry and use infill material and appropriate repair materials. Tools and most materials will be provided for the workshops. Attendees are encouraged to bring a folding chair for comfort. Appell has performed gravestone preservation and planning projects on historic cemeteries throughout the U.S., including the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D.C.; The Granary in Boston; Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Tarrytown, New York; The First Presbyterian Church Cemetery in Greensboro, North Carolina; and The New Haven Crypt in New Haven, Connecticut. Lunch will be provided and the cost to attend is $45. The workshop is limited to 25 people on a first-come, first-served basis. To reserve space or get more information, go to <a href="http://www.preservationOK.org" target="_blank">www.preservationOK.org</a>.
BY WILL CHAVEZ
Senior Reporter
04/13/2015 08:00 AM
WICHITA, Kan. – Meredith Radke-Gannon, a Cherokee artist and high school art teacher in Wichita, is taking part in a public-art project called “Keepers on Parade” that will place 10-foot tall fiberglass sculptures throughout the city. The sculptures are inspired by the “Keeper of the Plains” sculpture in downtown Wichita. Kiowa artist Blackbear Bosin created the sculpture, and the group “Together Wichita,” made up of businesses and organizations, has recruited artists to paint the sculptures to showcase the city’s qualities. Radke-Gannon is completing a second painted sculpture, which is part of 50 to 75 sculptures city officials hope to place in the next year. “Keeper” sculptures are decorated with Native American themes or Kansas-themed paintings. Radke-Gannon chose to use Native American themes. She said the sculpture’s design could symbolize reaching toward the sky, sending prayers up to the heavens with smoke, a star symbol or even a sunflower facing its top toward the sun. Radke-Gannon grew up in McPherson, but her family originated in Chelsea, Oklahoma. She may have grown up in Kansas, but she said her interest in Native art began in Oklahoma. “A moment that really began my journey in Native American art was when I was 8 years old. My grandparents took me on an art adventure trip to the Cherokee Heritage Center, and I’ll never forget the artwork that was portrayed there and the Willard Stone wood-carved sculpture entitled ‘Exodus,’” she said. “After viewing the artwork, they drove me to Mr. Stone’s home and art studio. It was a moment I’ll never forget that really inspired me to explore art. He worked in a number of mediums and showed us the wood-carved sculpture project he was working on at the time. His warm spirit and creativity blessed me and inspired me to keep learning more about Native arts and culture.” She attended Kansas State University for art education before studying textile weaving and printing at the Art Institute in Kansas City, Missouri. “I was first drawn to weaving and textiles because of the process and colors that could be achieved but also because of the textile traditions in Cherokee culture,” she said. Later she did commercial weaving and weaving for her artwork before having children and staying home to raise them. Eight years ago she began teaching art, first as an elementary art education teacher and then as an art teacher at Northeast Magnet High School. She has also started taking oil-painting classes. “That was a year and a half ago and ever since then I’ve been painting non stop. I do some wood sculptures, too. As a weaver it’s so labor intensive. Like when I’d weave it would be an inch an hour or half an inch an hour. It was so time consuming that it was really hard to get out what was in my head onto fabric, so that’s why I’ve gone really crazy with painting because it’s a lot faster and it gets out what I’m wanting to portray in each piece,” she said. “And then the (“Keepers on Parade”) project came along, and I submitted designs for that.” She was among the first eight artists chosen to create designs and decorate the initial “Keepers on Parade” sculptures. Her first design was based on designs from the Wichita tribe. Her design for the second sculpture is based on the Kansas state flag and its symbols. The “Keepers on Parade” project is similar to a project in Cherokee, North Carolina, where bear sculptures were painted and placed throughout the town or the project in Muskogee, Oklahoma, where artists painted guitar sculptures. “They are trying to bring community pride together, something that will make a lasting impression. They are really trying to focus now on the town’s symbol with the ‘Keeper of the Plains.’ It is one of the most visited places in town,” she said. She entered a painting in the 2014 Trail of Tears Art Show at the Cherokee Heritage Center in Park Hill, Oklahoma, and entered a painting and two wooden sculptures for this year’s show, which was slated to open on April 18. “I really want to do more entries and keep showing. That’s my goal,” she said. “I think as a teacher, I think students are really interested in what I’m doing because I’m creating along with them; I’m not just teaching them something. I’m also showing them art is a such viable medium, and I can express deep meaning things related to my culture.”
BY STAFF REPORTS
04/10/2015 12:00 PM
WEST SILOAM SPRINGS, Okla. – The Oklahoma Chapter of the Trail of Tears Association will hold its spring meeting from 10 a.m. to noon on April 11 at the Cherokee Casino West Siloam Springs. The public is invited to attend the meeting to listen to keynote speaker Jay Hannah speak about how Cherokee people coped and survived following their removal to Indian Territory from their eastern homelands. Hannah is a Cherokee Nation citizen who grew up in Adair County. His family traveled on the Trail of Tears in 1839 and settled 20 miles from where he grew up in Peavine. Hannah holds a bachelor’s degree from Northeastern State University and a master’s degree from Oklahoma State University. He is also the executive vice president of financial services for BancFirst Corporation in Oklahoma City. This year’s “Remember the Removal” bicycle riders will also be guests at the meeting. At 2:30 p.m. on April 18 the Oklahoma Chapter of TOTA will hold a marking and honoring ceremony for three Cherokee people who survived the Trail of Tears but later died in Indian Territory. The ceremony will be held at the Round Springs Cemetery in Eucha in Delaware County. Removal survivors Charlotte Chopper, Chief Charles Thompson and Anderson Springston will be honored and TOTA plaques will be attached to their graves.
BY STAFF REPORTS
04/09/2015 04:00 PM
WASHINGTON –Without actually being in attendance, individuals will be able to enjoy “Cherokee Days” via live webcasts and numerous amounts of information that Cherokee Nation will be sharing on their social media accounts. “Cherokee Days” events begin on April 10 at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington. “Cherokee Days” consist of the partnering of the CN, Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and United Keetoowah Band to share the Cherokee story. “By partnering with the Smithsonian to stream the sessions on Cherokee history, genealogy and culture, we open the experience of Cherokee Days to a much broader audience,” CN Principal Chief Bill John Baker said. “We encourage everyone interested to log on and participate in this unique gathering of tribal historians, artisans and cultural experts. The information collectively shared by the three tribes will be educational as well as entertaining. It’s important we make this experience accessible to the world.” On April 10, Robert Lewis will tell traditional Cherokee stories, Cherokee National Treasure Tommy Wildcat will preform with his flute, the Cherokee National Youth Choir will preform and there will be traditional dances. On April 11, John Ross Jr. will give those interested an opportunity to learn more about the Cherokee language; Catherine Foreman Gray will present a lecture about the Trial of Tears; Roy Hamilton will speak about Cherokee genealogy; EBCI speakers will speak about the importance of natural resources; and Ernestine Berry will help people learn more about the history of the UKB. The performances start at 10:30 a.m. (EDT) on April 10 and presentations start at 10 a.m. (EDT) on April 11 and can be viewed online via live webcast at <a href="http://nmai.si.edu/multimedia/webcasts/" target="_blank">http://nmai.si.edu/multimedia/webcasts/</a>. According to a CN press release, the public educational program is April 10-12 and includes an exhibit showcasing the history and culture of the three tribes, live cultural art demonstrations, and scheduled cultural performances. Among the activities is a make-and-take experience, which allows children to create traditional Cherokee items. CN officials will continually provide an inside look of the three-day event through its Tumblr page at <a href="http://www.CherokeeNationNews.tumblr.com" target="_blank">www.CherokeeNationNews.tumblr.com</a>. There will also be updates on the CN’s Facebook pages and Twitter accounts. For more information, visit <a href="http://www.AmericanIndian.si.edu" target="_blank">www.AmericanIndian.si.edu</a>.
BY STAFF REPORTS
04/08/2015 04:00 PM
CAVE SPRING, Ga. – The Cave Spring Historical Society invites the public to join the Cave Spring community for a workday to unveil the 1810 Vann Cherokee Cabin on April 11. A local citizen discovered the Vann Cherokee Cabin beneath the dilapidated structure of the Green Hotel five years ago. Hotel rooms had been added to the cabin obscuring the original structure. After extensive research, it was verified a Cherokee man named Avery Vann built the two-story, hand-hewed log cabin in 1810. “The cabin needs a lot of work, but is in relatively good shape,” Michael Burton, president of the Cave Spring Historical Society, said. “We are excited to unveil the historic cabin and hope to raise enough funds to restore the structure and open it to the public by next June.” The society’s goal is to fundraise $50,000 for building restorations. The National Park Service officially recognizes the structure as a historic place. Additionally, the Trail of Tears Association officially recognizes the cabin as being located on the Trail of Tears. Volunteers are asked to meet at 8 a.m. on Broad Street at the Cave Spring Square. Volunteers should wear gloves and bring hand tools for the demolition of the dilapidated structure outside the cabin. The Cave Spring Historical Society was originally formed to save and restore historical buildings in Cave Spring’s Rolater Park. The society and local citizens continue to work together to protect and preserve historical buildings in Cave Spring. For more information, call Burton at 770-748-8542 or email <a href="mailto: aBurtonMik@mac.com">aBurtonMik@mac.com</a>.