Cherokee Nation Principal Chief Chad Smith, center, and Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Michell Hicks, left, carry torches on April 16, 2009, to relight the Eternal Flame of the Cherokee Nation located at Red Clay State Park in Cleveland, Tenn. The park is hosting the commemoration of the 175th anniversary of the Trail of Tears on Aug. 3-4. WILL CHAVEZ/CHEROKEE PHOENIX

Trail of Tears commemoration set at Red Clay

07/30/2013 08:52 AM
CLEVELAND, Tenn. – Red Clay State Park will host “Honor and Remember” on Aug. 3-4 to commemorate the 175th anniversary of the Trail of Tears.

The event will be held 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. each day. While the event is free and open to the public, there is a $5 donation fee per vehicle.

Re-enactors will demonstrate 18th and early 19th century southeastern life featuring Cherokee and non-Native settlers. The event will also include Cherokee foods, music, dancing, storytelling and demonstrations of traditional crafts and skills. Park rangers will lead hikes and speakers will give lectures discussing various topics related to the Cherokee and the Trail of Tears.

“Red Clay’s commemoration of the 175th anniversary of the Trail of Tears is a great opportunity for visitors to view a depiction of Cherokee life in the 1700s and early 1800s,” park manager Erin Medley said.

For more information on the anniversary event, call Red Clay’s park office at 423-478-0339 or visit

Red Clay State Historic Park is located in the extreme southwest corner of Bradley County, just above the Tennessee-Georgia state line and is the site of 11 of the last 12 Cherokee Council meetings before the infamous Trail of Tears.

The park encompasses 263 acres of narrow valley and forested ridges and features picnic facilities, a loop trail and amphitheater. The park also contains a natural landmark, the Blue Hole Spring, which arises from beneath a limestone ledge to form a deep pool that flows into Mill Creek. The Cherokee used the Blue Hole Spring as their water supply during council meetings.

For more information about the park, visit


Senior Reporter
10/06/2015 08:30 AM
FORT SMITH, Ark. – On Sept. 12, citizens of various tribal nations, as well as historians, gathered at the Fort Smith National Historic Site to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the 1865 Fort Smith Council. In September 1865 representatives from 16 Indian nations and the U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs met at Fort Smith to re-establish post-Civil War relations between the tribes and the U.S. government. The Fort Smith Council of 1865 provided the foundation for the 1866 treaties that significantly altered conditions in Indian Territory and paved the way for Oklahoma statehood. Dr. Bill Corbett – a retired history professor from the Northeastern State University in Tahlequah, Oklahoma – presented “Why the Fort Smith Council?” to explain why the council occurred and state that what happened 150 years ago still affects people’s lives. He said from Sept. 8-23 in 1865 federal officials met representatives from as many as 16 tribes. “Ostensibly, the purpose of these officials was to re-establish relations with those assembled tribes who had treaties of alliance with the Confederate States of America,” he said. “During the Civil War all of the Five Civilized Tribes as well as many of the Plains tribes signed treaties of alliance with the Confederacy.” Because of these alliances, during the war Congress severed ties with tribes, which stopped government annuities or payments to tribes and the delivery of goods promised in treaties, Corbett said. Combined, the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muscogee (Creek) and Seminole nations had the majority of citizens living in Indian Territory and controlled most of its land. Along with re-establishing tribal relations, Corbett said the federal commissioners expanded their agenda to chip away at the “autonomy and sovereignty” of the five tribes. He said their efforts failed in Fort Smith. The earlier Homestead and Pacific Railroad acts of the 1850s were also meant to chip away at Indian sovereignty and take lands for settlers and railroads. And in 1857, the Kansas Territory began to organize for statehood and looked south to Indian Territory to accommodate more settlers and rail lines. In 1861, a militant, pro-Southern faction emerged in the Cherokee Nation led by Stand Watie, an “arch enemy” of Principal Chief John Ross. Made of mostly mixed-blood Cherokees and “inter-married citizens,” the group advocated separating from the U.S. and allying with the Confederacy. Another Cherokee group called the Pin Indians, led by missionaries Evan and John Jones countered Watie’s group and supported the Union. Ross advocated neutrality, but eventually was forced to sign an alliance with the Confederacy in 1861 because Watie threatened to take over as principal chief and surrounding tribes had signed treaties with the Confederacy. Corbett said differences within the Cherokee Nation that began during the forced removals 23 years earlier resurfaced when tribal citizens chose sides for the Civil War. “The Civil War in Indian Territory for the Cherokees, Creeks and Seminoles produced a conflict that killed thousands and destroyed prosperous farms and plantations,” he said. Throughout the Civil War, Ross lobbied the Office of Indian Affairs and indirectly the president on behalf of the Nation to defend the tribe’s sovereignty. The five tribes in Indian Territory held title to their lands and were promised in their removal treaties that no territorial government would be established over their lands, Corbett said, but throughout the war some members of Congress lobbied to take Indian lands as punishment for tribes siding with the Confederacy. U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs Dennis Cooley came to Fort Smith in September 1865 with “unequivocal conditions” for a treaty between the U.S. and attending tribes. He was to gain “peace and friendship” from tribes associated with the Confederacy, establish a central territorial government for Indian Territory, end of slavery there, gain tribal citizenship for former slaves, acquire land to relocate Indian tribes not living in Indian Territory, recognize tribes that remained loyal to the Union, sell bonds invested for Southern states and restrict the presence of whites in Indian Territory. Corbett said the 1865 meetings began on Sept. 8 with tribes that had remained loyal to the U.S. Cherokee representatives and other “disloyal” tribes met with Cooley and the federal delegation the following week. Some tribal delegates informed Cooley they could not make a treaty with him without the consent of their respective councils. Even before Ross arrived in Fort Smith for the meeting, Cooley “castigated” him for leading the Cherokees into an alliance with the Confederacy, but ignored all of the things Ross did during the war to distance the tribe from the Confederacy such as repudiating the Confederacy alliance in 1862 and abolishing slavery in the Nation in 1863. When Ross arrived for the meeting, Cooley continued his assault on him calling him a “conspirator” against the government, Corbett said. The commission refused to recognize Ross as principal chief and negotiated with Assistant Chief Lewis Downing. The Nation signed a peace treaty with the federal government. The Creek Nation also signed a treaty but refused to make their slaves citizens, and the Seminole Nation signed the same treaty and retained their land holdings. The Choctaw and Chickasaw nations had remained loyal to the U.S. and signed a peace treaty and seemed accepting of many of Cooley’s conditions, Corbett said. He said he believes the Fort Smith Council occurred because of three reasons: to make Indian Territory “available to exploitation” by railroad companies, mining interests, businesses and speculators; to destroy tribal governments and establish a single territorial government; and to use retribution against tribes for siding with the Confederacy to force them to accept new conditions that violated their treaty rights, particularly the treaty rights of the Five Civilized Tribes. “The alliance with the Confederacy fueled efforts by political leaders in the North to undo the Indian republics,” Corbett said.
10/05/2015 12:00 PM
GLENPOOL, Okla. – Cherokee Nation citizen Bill Glass Jr. will be the Honored Elder Artist for the Greater Tulsa Indian Art Festival in February. Each year the festival honors a Native American artist. According to Tulsa Indian Art Festival, Glass’ art has helped him win awards throughout his career, including awards at the Santa Fe Indian Market, Heard Museum Show, Philbrook Art Center American Indian National Exhibition and Tulsa Indian Art Festival. “He was named a Cherokee National Treasure in 2009, Master Artist of the Five Civilized Tribes Museum in 1986, and is a recipient of the Cherokee Medal of Honor,” the TIAF release states. “Over the years, Bill has expanded his range of media to include bronze sculpture and installation pieces. In 1994, Bill designed and created large light fixtures for the Talking Leaves Job Corp facility. Bill and his son Demos Glass were among the five Cherokee artists that formed the Cherokee Artists Gadugi Team, Inc.” For more information about the festival call 918-298-2300 or email <a href="mailto:"></a>.
Senior Reporter
10/05/2015 08:41 AM
PARK HILL, Okla. – Cherokee artist Danny McCarter, of Tahlequah, possesses skills handed down by Cherokee people for hundreds of years. He makes blowguns from river cane and the darts shot from it. Along with knowing these skills, he uses a blowgun at his job as a villager in the Cherokee Heritage Center’s Diligwa Village. He interprets for the village’s visitors the Cherokee lifeways of the mid-1700s. To make darts, he uses a thistle plant and a wooden shaft, which is usually difficult for a person when first trying. “I can teach people to make a blowgun in one day...but the dart is really the art part because it takes a lot of dexterity to roll the dart and catch the thistle on there,” he said. “It looks simple when you see somebody do it that’s done it a thousand times, but it’s really difficult.” His late uncle, J.C. McCarter, who worked in the CHC’s Ancient Village, introduced him to the blowgun. Danny’s brother, Rob, and another villager named Scott Rackliff also had a hand in teaching Danny about the blowgun and dart making when they worked in the village in the 1980s. Danny said from what he’s studied it is not known where the river cane blowgun originated or who invented it, but it has always been used for hunting. Some cultures in South America used it in warfare because they could deliver tranquilizers with darts. However, he said, Cherokee people used the blowgun to hunt squirrels, rabbits and birds and relied on accuracy to kill those animals. Cherokee youths also used it to keep animals out of gardens. He said Cherokees were people small in stature, so most tools they used didn’t require great strength but technique instead. He said some people try to use a large puff of air to blow a dart from a blowgun when all that’s required is a “quick, hard” burst of breath. He said he’s won the Cherokee National Holiday blowgun contest with just a 4-1/2-foot long blowgun when competitors used longer blowguns to shoot at a target 45 feet away. He conceded that darts coming out his shorter blowgun are somewhat thicker or heavier so they can travel that distance. Danny begins gathering the Scottish Thistle that he uses to fletch his darts after it blooms about mid-August in northeastern Oklahoma. Its purple blooms will first appear in the northern part of the Cherokee Nation and later in the southern part. He said thistle in Sequoyah County might not bloom until mid-September. “You don’t want to pick it while it’s purple. You want to pick it while it’s brown. If you gather it while it’s purple and try to put it up (save it for later), it will mold,” he said. He said for accuracy and distance, thistle is the best material for fletching. He said most Oklahoma Cherokees only use their blowguns to compete in contests in which a circular target is 45 feet away and that most blowguns are 8- to 10-feet-long. As with a rifle, the longer the blowgun the farther a dart can travel and maintain its velocity. For fletching, he takes a dried thistle bulb and removes the brown, seedy part from the pod, avoiding pulling out the bulb’s white, fluffy downy that will form the fletching. “That’s all you want, just the downy part on the inside,” he said. He then finds a straight, wooden skewer and notches it on top. He said a person could carve the dart out of woods such as river cane and bois d’arc, which he said both make pretty and sturdy darts. Other woods used for dart shafts are oak, ash, maple, hickory and walnut. However, to save time, he purchases a 100-pack of wooden skewers, usually used to skewer food, for his dart shafts. After notching the top of a skewer, he takes quilting thread and knots on one end and places in the notch. He then places the downy part of the thistle pod against the stick and wraps the thread around the downy to attach it to the stick. It takes an intricate use of his hands and his teeth to attach the thistle downy to the stick with the thread. He ties the end of the thread where the downy ends on the stick and then rolls the stick in his hands to get rid of any remaining seeds or loose downy. “We’ve used all kinds of materials for that fletching. We’ve used the downy feathers of birds, squirrel tail, and rabbit fur. The Choctaws of Mississippi use raw cotton because that’s what they have in their area, but really thistle is the greatest material,” he said. “It’s keeps your dart in the middle of your gun. It also gives you something to blow against, and it also gives you a guide like feathers on an arrow.”
09/30/2015 04:00 PM
DAHLONEGA, Ga. – The next meeting of the Georgia Chapter of the Trail of Tears Association will take place at 10:30 a.m. on Nov. 14 at the Funk Heritage Center in Waleska. The Funk Heritage Center is located on the campus of Reinhardt University near the intersection of Hwy. 140 and Hwy. 108. The center is Georgia’s official frontier and southeastern Indian interpretive center. It features the art collection of the late Margaret Rogers as well as the Sellars collection of antique and specialized tools. The featured speaker at this month’s meeting is Dr. Joseph Kitchens, executive director of the Funk Heritage Center. Dr. Kitchens will talk about the Hickory Log collection of artifacts. These artifacts were uncovered when excavation began at the site of the current Wal-Mart in Canton. He will also discuss the plans to create a new exhibit space to accommodate some of the artifacts and interpret the history of the Trail of Tears, the tragic and forced removal of the Native Americans from the southeast. The Funk Heritage Center was recently added to the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail as an interpretive site. The historic trail is administered by the National Park Service and supported by the Trail of Tears Association. The Nov. 14 meeting will coincide with the recognition of Native American Day at the Funk Heritage Center from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. This is a free public event. There will be hot dogs and drinks for sale or people may bring a picnic lunch. Call the museum at 770-720-5967 for directions. Also during the meeting, an election for the positions of president, vice President, secretary, and treasurer for the Georgia TOTA chapter will take place. The Trail of Tears Association is dedicated to identifying and preserving sites associated with the removal of Native Americans from the southeast. The organization is also committed to educating the public about this tragic period in our country’s history. The association consists of nine state chapters representing the nine states that the Cherokee and other tribes traveled through on their way to present-day Arkansas and Oklahoma. People in Georgia need not be a member to attend Georgia chapter meetings nor have Native American heritage, just an interest and desire to learn more about this fascinating subject. Meetings are free and open to the public. For more information about the TOTA, visit the National website at or the Georgia Chapter website <a href="" target="_blank"></a>. For questions about the Nov. 14 meeting, contact Tony Harris at <a href="mailto:"></a>.
09/29/2015 04:00 PM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – The Indigenous Scholar Development Center at Northeastern State University in Tahlequah will host a Cherokee storytelling series throughout the fall semester beginning Sept. 30. The theme for the series is “Persistence.” Cherokee storyteller and former Miss Cherokee Janelle Adair will lead each event. The Sept. 30 kickoff event will take place at 6 p.m. at Second Century Square. The ISCD invites the NSU campus community to the series. There is no cost to attend. Adair is a United Keetoowah Band citizen and has been telling stories for 16 years. “She is passionate about storytelling and brings to life the stories that her ancestors have told and passed down from generation to generation,” said Hannah Foreman, scholar development coordinator with the ISDC. During the series, Adair will incorporate explanations about how and why storytelling is a valuable tool still used by many tribes. She will also explain the significance of many stories passed down from generation to generation and elaborate on the types of storytelling. Adair said this opportunity will serve as a learning experience for those who may not be familiar with the history of Cherokee storytelling. As an NSU alumna, Adair also believes the theme of persistence will speak directly to the students. “Persistence, to me, describes what it takes to get through college. What many people don’t understand about the Native student population is that most of them aren’t pursuing a degree for personal gain or achievement. They’re often going to school to use that degree to help others,” Adair said. “Natives are selfless people. They look for ways to take care of someone else, and that can be family or the community in general. They set their goals around the idea of ‘What can I do to make things better for someone else?’” For more information, visit the ISDC located on the second floor of the John Vaughan Library on the Tahlequah campus or call Foreman at 918-444-3042.
09/29/2015 02:00 PM
TULSA, Okla. – The Cherokee Nation is celebrating 10 years of the best of the Cherokee Art Market with a special exhibit at the Hardesty Arts Center, also known as AHHA, through Nov. 1. “Cherokee Art Market: A Retrospective” will feature previous “Best of Show” winners from the annual competition, which has featured many of the best Native American artists in the country. The “Best of Show” winners are Marcus Amerman (Choctaw, 2006), Sharon Irla (Cherokee, 2007), Jackie Bread (Blackfeet, 2008), Betty Willems (Oneida, 2009), Bill Glass (Cherokee, 2010), Shawna Cain (Cherokee, 2011), Orlando Dugi (Navajo) and Ken Williams (Northern Arapaho, 2012), Alvin Marshall (Navajo, 2013) and Benjamin Harjo Jr. (Absentee Shawnee/Seminole, 2014). The celebration of past winners leads up to the return of the 10th annual Cherokee Art Market on Oct. 10-11 at Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Tulsa. More than 50 tribes are represented at the annual event that features artwork available for purchase. Pieces include beadwork, pottery, painting, basketry, sculptures, and textiles. As part of the two-day event, there will be cultural demonstrations open to the public from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. each day. Cultural demonstrations include jewelry, stamp work technique, katsina doll making, pottery, painting, basket weaving and music. For more information about the Cherokee Art Market, visit <a href="" target="_blank"></a>. The Hardesty Arts Center (AHHA) is located at 101 East Archer Street in the Brady Arts District. Gallery hours are Thursday through Sunday from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m., and first Fridays from 1 p.m. to 9 p.m. More information about the Arts & Humanities Council of Tulsa and the Hardesty Arts Center may be found online: <a href="" target="_blank"></a>.