Cherokee Nation Administration Liaison Pat Gwin uses a Global Positioning System device to map river cane near Greasy, Okla., in southern Adair County. WILL CHAVEZ/CHEROKEE PHOENIX

River cane in CN being mapped, studied

University of Arkansas graduate student and Cherokee Nation citizen Roger Cain studies a dead stalk of river cane that likely died during a time of sub-freezing weather or a drought the area recently experienced. WILL CHAVEZ/CHEROKEE PHOENIX Healthy stalks of river cane stand near Sallisaw Creek in southern Adair County. A project to map and study river cane in the Cherokee Nation is under way. WILL CHAVEZ/CHEROKEE PHOENIX Research shows that Cherokee people living in the southeast frequently used river cane for items such as sleeping mats, food, flutes, blowguns, baskets and cover for homes. The basket on the left, made by Cherokee artist Shawna Cain, is made from river cane. WILL CHAVEZ/CHEROKEE PHOENIX
University of Arkansas graduate student and Cherokee Nation citizen Roger Cain studies a dead stalk of river cane that likely died during a time of sub-freezing weather or a drought the area recently experienced. WILL CHAVEZ/CHEROKEE PHOENIX
BY WILL CHAVEZ
Senior Reporter – @cp_wchavez
10/24/2013 08:31 AM
GREASY, Okla. – A project to map and study river cane in the Cherokee Nation is under way as two researchers complete work in Adair County.

In this southern Adair County community, near the Sallisaw Creek, University of Arkansas graduate student and CN citizen Roger Cain, as well as CN Administration Liaison Pat Gwin, have been mapping river cane in a densely wooded area.

“It’s a project we started this past year to start identifying and mapping river cane,” Cain, who is finishing a master’s degree in ethno-botany with an emphasis on river cane, said.

He said after the river cane fields are identified and mapped, a usage policy would be developed to preserve the plant and its ecosystems for future generations.

Research has found river cane riparian zones significantly reduce nutrient loads into area streams, creeks and rivers, Cain said. This research has implications for the controversial issue of local poultry farmers allegedly polluting the Illinois River with runoff containing poultry waste.

Gwin said once the river cane data is compiled, the CN would likely have the largest database in Oklahoma and possibly the entire United States.

“It’s a very important plant. I think it has a lot to offer for both the cultural preservation of the Cherokee, and I think it also has a lot to offer scientifically in the future. This is groundbreaking research,” Gwin said. “A misconception with cane is its name. It’s called river cane. I don’t think that’s a very good name. I think it would be far better referred to as flood plain cane or bamboo.”

He said Cain’s research includes gathering soil profiles to show where cane is growing and where the CN may be able to artificially introduce and successfully grow it. Gwin said 99 percent of the canebrakes the two men are finding are not flourishing due to past land management practices and other reasons.

“Estimates are, by specialists in the field of ethno-botany and ethno-biology, is that 2 percent of the population of river cane is left in the whole country,” Cain said.

That 98 percent decline has occurred since Europeans made contact with Native people in North America about 500 years ago, he said. Large areas of canebrakes were once abundant along river bottoms in the southeastern United States. Canebrakes are now considered critically endangered ecosystems because of agriculture, grazing, fire suppression and urbanization.

Gwin said canebrakes would likely lesson the affects of flooding in low-lying areas if they still existed next to streams and rivers in urban areas.

Research shows that Cherokee people living in the southeast frequently used river cane for sleeping mats, food, flutes, blowguns, baskets and cover for homes.

“It was our plastic. When archeologists go into prehistoric sites, be it Cherokee or any Southeastern woodland (tribe), the plants they find more predominately than anything else is river cane and hickory,” Cain said.

Severe winter weather and drought conditions from recent years have decimated area cane fields. Dead stalks littered the cane fields visited by Cain and Gwin as they mapped the fields near Sallisaw Creek.

After those major kills of the plant, Cain said he became concerned there was not much cane left and what was left needed protection, so he successfully lobbied the CN Environmental Protection Commission to place the plant on the tribe’s Culturally Protected Species List.

Cain said he and Gwin have covered 13,000 acres so far and have found only 50 total acres of cane growing on CN land in Adair County.

Gwin uses a Global Positioning System device and Geographic Information Systems to map the canebrakes. So far, only tribal lands in Adair County have been mapped for river cane, but Gwin said research and mapping would done on tribal lands in other counties soon.

“It’s been very educational for me. I’ve learned more about cane in the last couple of months than I have in my entire life,” Gwin said. “The goal is we will survey every inch of tribal trust property and determine the presence of cane and the cane brakes. For the most part we have found it in smaller brakes.”

He added that the stalks studied so far range from 2 feet tall to 20 feet tall located in small canebrakes.

“We certainly don’t have the very large breaks that most people think of when they look at the large flood plains of the Baron Fork (Creek) and the Illinois River. We don’t have any like that that we’ve seen yet,” Gwin said.

will-chavez@cherokee.org


918-207-3961

About the Author
Will lives in Tahlequah, Okla., but calls Marble City, Okla., his hometown. He is Cherokee and San Felipe Pueblo and grew up learning the Cherokee language, traditions and culture from his Cherokee mother and family. He also appreciates his father’s Pueblo culture and when possible attends annual traditional dances held on the San Felipe Reservation near Albuquerque, N.M.

He enjoys studying and writing about Cherokee history and culture and writing stories about Cherokee veterans. For Will, the most enjoyable part of writing for the Cherokee Phoenix is having the opportunity to meet Cherokee people from all walks of life.
He earned a mass communications degree in 1993 from Northeastern State University with minors in marketing and psychology. He is a member of the Native American Journalists Association.

Will has worked in the newspaper and public relations field for 20 years. He has performed public relations work for the Cherokee Nation and has been a reporter and a photographer for the Cherokee Phoenix for more than 18 years. He was named interim executive editor on Dec. 8, 2015, by the Cherokee Phoenix Editorial Board.
WILL-CHAVEZ@cherokee.org • 918-207-3961
Will lives in Tahlequah, Okla., but calls Marble City, Okla., his hometown. He is Cherokee and San Felipe Pueblo and grew up learning the Cherokee language, traditions and culture from his Cherokee mother and family. He also appreciates his father’s Pueblo culture and when possible attends annual traditional dances held on the San Felipe Reservation near Albuquerque, N.M. He enjoys studying and writing about Cherokee history and culture and writing stories about Cherokee veterans. For Will, the most enjoyable part of writing for the Cherokee Phoenix is having the opportunity to meet Cherokee people from all walks of life. He earned a mass communications degree in 1993 from Northeastern State University with minors in marketing and psychology. He is a member of the Native American Journalists Association. Will has worked in the newspaper and public relations field for 20 years. He has performed public relations work for the Cherokee Nation and has been a reporter and a photographer for the Cherokee Phoenix for more than 18 years. He was named interim executive editor on Dec. 8, 2015, by the Cherokee Phoenix Editorial Board.

Culture

BY STAFF REPORTS
08/30/2016 04:00 PM
CATOOSA, Okla. – The musical “Nanyehi – The Story of Nancy Ward” is set to return Nov. 11-12 at The Joint inside Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Tulsa. Ward was honored as a Cherokee war woman in the 18th century and later became known as a peacemaker during the American Revolution. Tickets are $15 and go on sale Sept. 2. There is also a $5 discount for Cherokee Nation citizens and children under 12. To purchase tickets, call 918-384-ROCK. There is also a casting call for the musical with auditions taking place from 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. on Sept. 24-25 at Fly Loft in Tulsa. New York-based actress Michelle Honaker will reprise her role as Nanyehi, and there are seven principle roles available as well as 20 supporting roles for men, women and children of all ages to audition for. If auditioning for a role, bring an accompaniment CD, an accompanist or sing a cappella or accompany yourself. A keyboard and a CD player will be provided. Non-singing auditions will read from the script. Dancers will be taught a short routine and are asked to bring dancing shoes. For more information, email <a href="mailto: nanyehiproductions@gmail.com">nanyehiproductions@gmail.com</a> or visit <a href="http://www.nanyehi.com" target="_blank">www.nanyehi.com</a>.
BY STAFF REPORTS
08/23/2016 04:00 PM
OKLAHOMA CITY – Cherokee National Treasure Martha Berry will teach a beadwork class at 10 a.m. on Nov. 12 at the Oklahoma History Center. The project will be a bandolier bag. Bandolier bags are beaded pouches with beaded flaps to enclose the pouches. They have beaded straps to enable the owners to wear the bags diagonally over the shoulder. The bag usually rests at hip level. The bag’s designs are created using glass beads. Berry creates beaded bandolier bags, moccasins, belts, sashes, small purses and knee bands in the styles worn by the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole prior to 1850. She was designated a Cherokee National Treasure in 2013. Her work can be viewed at <a href="http://www.berrybeadwork.com" target="_blank">http://www.berrybeadwork.com</a>. The Oklahoma History Center is located at 800 Nazih Zuhdi Drive. For more information, call Sarah Dumas at 405-521-2491.
BY STAFF REPORTS
08/19/2016 12:00 PM
CHATSWORTH, Ga. – The next meeting of the Georgia Chapter of the Trail of Tears Association will begin at 10:30 a.m. on Sept. 10 at the Vann House State Historic Site near Chatsworth. Speakers will be Cherokee Nation citizens Patsy Edgar and Tony Harris. Edgar is one of the founding members of the GATOTA and is secretary of the national TOTA board of directors. Tony is vice president of GATOTA and an expert in native plants used by the Cherokee. The topic will be “The Cherokee Nation Today.” A GATOTA business meeting will follow. The Vann House is located 3 miles west of Chatsworth at the intersection of Highways 225 and 52-A. People are welcome to bring a picnic lunch and tour the site after the meeting. During the 1790s, James Vann was a Cherokee leader and wealthy businessman. He established the largest and most prosperous plantation in the Cherokee Nation, covering 1,000 acres of what is now Murray County. The beautiful 2-1/2-story brick home at the site was the most elegant in the CN. After Vann was murdered in 1809, his son Joseph inherited the plantation. Joseph was also a Cherokee leader and became even wealthier than his father. In the 1830s, most of the Cherokee people were forced west by state and federal troops on the Trail of Tears. The Vann family lost their elegant home rebuilt their lives in Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. Today the Vann House survives as Georgia’s best-preserved historic Cherokee home. A guided tour allows visitors to see the home, which features beautiful hand carvings, a remarkable “floating” staircase, a 12-foot mantle and fine antiques. The TOTA was created to support the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail established by an act of Congress in 1987. The TOTA is dedicated to identifying and preserving sites associated with the removal of Native Americans from the southeastern United States. The association consists of nine state chapters representing the nine states that the Cherokee and other tribes traveled through on their way to Indian Territory. GATOTA meetings are free and open to the public. People need not have Native American ancestry to attend GATOTA meetings, just an interest and desire to learn more about this period in this country’s history. For more information about the TOTA, visit www.nationaltota.org. For more information on the Georgia Chapter, visit <a href="http://www.gatrailoftears.org" target="_blank">www.gatrailoftears.org</a>. For more information about the September meeting, email <a href="mailto: harris7627@bellsouth.net">harris7627@bellsouth.net</a>.
BY STAFF REPORTS
08/17/2016 04:15 PM
PARK HILL, Okla. – A new exhibit is to open at the Cherokee Nation’s John Ross Museum featuring information about John Ross and his Cherokee roots. “John Ross: The Early Years” will run Aug. 26 through Nov. 1. Free admission will be offered on opening day. The exhibit features the early years of the former chief’s life, including his time growing up in the CN and attending schools on the East Coast. It also details contacts he made and the influences he faced leading up to his time spent as CN principal chief. John Ross was the principal chief from 1828–66, serving longer in this position than any other person. During his service to the Cherokee people as principal chief, Ross witnessed devastation by both the Indian removals and the Civil War. The John Ross Museum highlights the life of Ross and houses exhibits and interactive displays on the Trail of Tears, Civil War, Cherokee Golden Age and the Nation’s passion for education. The museum is housed in an old, rural school building known as School No. 51 and sits at the foot of Ross Cemetery, where Ross and other notable CN citizens are buried. The museum is located at 22366 S. 530 Road. CN museums are open from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Tuesday through Saturday. For information on Cherokee Nation Cultural Tourism, including museum operations, call 1-877-779-6977 or visit <a href="http://www.VisitCherokeeNation.com" target="_blank">www.VisitCherokeeNation.com</a>.
BY ASSOCIATED PRESS
08/13/2016 10:00 AM
COLUMBUS, Ky. (AP) – Local historical and tourism organizations, along with state and national park representatives, participated in a recent ceremony at Columbus-Belmont State Park highlighting west Kentucky’s role in the historic Trail of Tears. The ceremony was designed to honor the approximately 1,100 Cherokee Indians who endured the Trail of Tears Benge Route, named after John Benge, who led the detachment in 1838 on a route to Oklahoma that included passage through Hickman County. The event included dedication of the signage that marks the route of the Benge Detachment and the unveiling of the newest park exhibits depicting the land and water routes of the trail. The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Indian nations to areas west of the Mississippi River following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Those who were relocated suffered from exposure, disease and starvation on the trek from their ancestral lands in Southeastern states, and more than 10,000 died. The Cherokee removal in 1838 took the lives of more than 2,000 of 16,500 people forced to leave their homeland. According to the Kentucky Great River Region Organization, the Benge group arrived in Columbus in mid-November 1838 and awaited transport across the Mississippi River by ferry to Belmont, Missouri. The Cherokees most likely spent several days camped around the ferry landing in the area of what is now the state park. “We’re seeing a vision become a reality,” said Alice Murphree, Kentucky Chapter president of the Trail of Tears Association, of the project that involved the work of several organizations and countless volunteer hours. “This is the actual route they took ... this site was witness to all of them who went by water.” The new exhibits demonstrate how important west Kentucky is to the overall promotion of the state as a tourist destination, through cultural heritage tourism, according to Amy Potts, communications specialist with the Kentucky Department of Travel & Tourism. “We can creatively market the state as a destination by how we tell our story, showing the places, artifacts and actions that represent stories of our people, past and present,” she said. According to Ron Vanover, director of recreational parks and historic sites for Kentucky state parks, the dedication of the signs about the intersection of the land and water routes of the Trail of Tears “will raise the visibility for this park for many guests and the community. “They will help tell the important story of what happened way before the Civil War. Moreover, these signs and the groups gathered today are here for a reason. That reason is to see that the Cherokee story will live on and on and on.” Troy Wayne Poteete is chief justice of the Cherokee Supreme Court and executive director of the national Trail of Tears Association. “I will tell you all that the designation of this route as a national trail was not a Cherokee initiative,” Poteete said. “This sad chapter is not something that we went to Congress and said we want you to make this a national trail.” However, after legislation was passed establishing the Trail of Tears as an official long distance trail, a highly placed Cherokee in the National Park Service helped get funding together and established an advisory council through the park service, Poteete said. That led to the formation of the national Trail of Tears organization and the state chapters that followed. “As a Cherokee official, I would have you know why we invest so much time and energy into the making of this trail,” Poteete said. “We don’t do this because we want to capture the image of our ancestors in the role of victims, and absolutely they were victimized. “The reason we do this is because this is an opportunity for us to honor that generation of Cherokee which endured, and not only endured, but rebuilt the Cherokee nation,” he said. “We draw lessons and inspirations as a people now from that tenacity. From that perseverance, that strength and resilience.” According to Poteete, “It is our responsibility to pass on to the next generation, a Cherokee nation strong, viable. It is our intention that our culture and our language be alive ... and people will be singing hymns in Cherokee when the Lord comes again.”
BY ROGER GRAHAM
Media Specialist – @cp_rgraham &
JAMI MURPHY
Senior Reporter – @cp_jmurphy
08/12/2016 08:15 AM
PARK HILL, Okla. – The Cherokee Heritage Center’s first female executive director has resigned to take an assistant professor post at Northeastern State University. Cherokee Nation citizen Candessa Tehee’s last day was Aug. 5. She was to start at NSU on Aug. 8. “I have accepted a position at Northeastern State University for an assistant professor of American Indian studies, and the position will focus on Cherokee language teaching and research and is also encouraged to do a lot of engagement with the local community. And that is something I’m very excited and really looking forward to,” she said. Tehee served as executive director for about 2-1/2 years and previously worked at the CN for five years. Her first CN job was at the Cherokee Immersion Charter School as a clerk in curriculum and instruction. “Every step that I’ve taken has been kind of another rung up the ladder,” Tehee said, “until I’m now departing as executive director of the Cherokee Heritage Center.” Shane Jett, Cherokee National Historical Society board of trustees president, said he and other board members were working closely with the CN as they made arrangements for Tehee’s departure. “She is a strong and accomplished Cherokee woman, and I appreciate her achievements. She has overcome many obstacles in her life and sets a great example for Cherokee young women and young men for that matter,” he said. “I’m thrilled for the professional development opportunity her new teaching position affords her.” The CNHS has been around since 1963 and will be around for many years to come, Jett added. “It has survived because of the many contributions of time, talent and treasure from so many good people both Cherokees (and) non-Cherokee alike. I’m confident that we will continue to thrive from future Cherokees who will continue the tradition of promoting and teaching Cherokee heritage, history and culture,” he said. “Like with any transition this is a challenging time, but also a time of opportunity. The board is working hard to meet the challenges of filling her very capable shoes. I am confident that we will transition smoothly and continue to fulfill our mission.” Tehee said the CHC has gone from being a groundbreaking, innovative living history organization to a mainstay of the local community. “Has probably served hundreds of thousands of people throughout its history. In my 2-1/2 tenure here we have served I know over 130,000 for sure,” she said. “I have been able to oversee some changes to the infrastructure here and to the organization itself, which I feel have been very positive, and I will certainly miss the staff and miss the programming here.” On Aug. 5, Jett said in cooperation with Principal Chief Bill John Baker and Secretary of State Chuck Hoskin Jr. the CNHS board had selected Tonia Weavel as the CHC’s interim executive director. Jett said the next step was to conduct a nationwide search for a quality replacement in collaboration with CN leadership.