http://www.cherokeephoenix.orgCherokee Nation Environmental Programs employees Andrea Taylor and Linda Pence screen through dirt looking for stone materials during an excavation near Bell, Oklahoma. JAMI MURPHY/CHEROKEE PHOENIX
Cherokee Nation Environmental Programs employees Andrea Taylor and Linda Pence screen through dirt looking for stone materials during an excavation near Bell, Oklahoma. JAMI MURPHY/CHEROKEE PHOENIX

Adair County excavation unveils stone tools

Stone artifacts found at an excavation in Adair County included a square-headed nail. The project was initially from a road construction project. JAMI MURPHY/CHEROKEE PHOENIX Archeologist Christopher Cojeen holds an “arrowhead” base an example of the stone materials an excavation in Adair County is producing. The dig came after a road construction project unearthed materials that may prove to be significant. JAMI MURPHY/CHEROKEE PHOENIX
Stone artifacts found at an excavation in Adair County included a square-headed nail. The project was initially from a road construction project. JAMI MURPHY/CHEROKEE PHOENIX
BY JAMI MURPHY
Former Reporter
03/17/2017 09:00 AM
Video with default Cherokee Phoenix Frame
BELL, Okla. – Christopher Cojeen, a Cherokee Nation-contracted archeologist, CN Environmental Programs employees and an archeological team returned to an Adair County excavation site for more digging to determine its significance.

Cojeen said during the past 20 to 25 years he has worked with the tribe to determine if there are homesteads or prehistoric sites located in the path of projects that use tribal or federal funds such as roads, community services buildings or housing projects.

The Adair County excavation stemmed from a CN road construction project.

Cojeen and others recently performed an initial site visit, and after visually seeing a large amount of material on the surface, it was determined that a second phase of testing was necessary.

“Once we find a prehistoric site and we think it has potential to yield more scientific information, we’ll come out and start test units, and based on these test units, determine whether the site has significance,” Cojeen said.

Each test unit is roughly a 3-foot-square hole dug with the soil being removed in 10-centimeter layers.

“This site had a high quantity of lithic or stone material and stone tools on the surface, and as we dig down we collected into baggies, screening the dirt, the stone tools and the stone flakes from a campsite and based on that, determine how old a site is and whether the site continues down below the surface,” he said.

Cojeen said the site might be anywhere from 2,000 to 5,000 years old. A waterway is the first clue to determining a site because individuals would always camp near one.

The excavation process has yielded stone tools such as arrowheads. However, at the age they are being estimated, they would more likely be atlatl or throwing darts, he said.

“We’ve found as many as three or more dart points per level. That’s a high recovery and an extensive amount of flake material. Flake material is the waste flakes off the cobble of stone that you’re trying to turn into a tool,” he said.

Also found were seven chip stone hoes that would indicate early horticulture occurring 2,000 to 3,000 years ago in the remote setting. He said that is significant to know because it’s indicative of when horticulture in the area was beginning.

Because of the tools’ recovery, Cojeen said the excavation period was extended through mid-March. The objective is to determine if the site is significant, and that would be based on a national register of historic places, he said.

“The quantity of artifacts would help to determine that, but finding features such as buried campsites, living foundations like that would help to add the significance of the site,” he said.
Cojeen said the site hasn’t been impacted by a plow zone and has had a heavy recovery, but there hadn’t been any definitive features found.

He said it would take time to determine material types and how many stone tools, but he expects to have a decision on how significant the site is once all excavation is done and once the team has moved to the lab to review all materials found.

“By summer we’d hope to have a report out,” he said.

News

BY ASSOCIATED PRESS
08/21/2017 09:45 AM
FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. (AP) — While much of the country gawks at the solar eclipse, Bobbieann Baldwin will be inside with her children, shades drawn. In Navajo culture, the passing of the moon over the sun is an intimate moment in which the sun is reborn and tribal members take time out for themselves. No talking. No eating or drinking. No lying down. No fussing. "It's a time of renewal," said Baldwin, a Navajo woman from Fort Defiance, Arizona. "Kind of like pressing the alt, control, delete button on your computer, resetting everything." Across the country, American Indian tribes are observing the eclipse in similar and not-so-similar ways. Some tribal members will ignore it, others might watch while praying for an anticipated renewal, and those in prime viewing spots are welcoming visitors with storytelling, food and celebration. For the Crow Tribe in Montana, the eclipse coincides with the Parade Dance at the annual Crow fair, marking the tribe's new year. Many American Indian tribes revere the sun and moon as cultural deities, great sources of power and giver of life. The Crow's cultural director, William Big Day, said the sun is believed to die and come back to life during an eclipse. In more nomadic days, Crows would offer each other "good wishes" for their travels, and elders would advise them to do a cleansing ceremony to start anew, he said. U.S. Bureau of Indian Education spokeswoman Nedra Darling said the agency's schools, most of which are on the Navajo Nation, were given the option of closing Monday. Navajo Nation employees have Monday off, and other schools on and off the reservation that extends into Arizona, New Mexico and Utah earlier decided to close in respect of the culture that teaches that looking at the sun during an eclipse can be harmful not only to one's eyesight but for overall well-being. "You're welcoming negativity into your life, or turmoil, or troublesome times ahead of you, as well as socially, health-wise and spiritually," Baldwin said. "You're observing something that should not be observed." Farther east near the Great Smoky Mountains, the Eastern Cherokee tribe is expecting thousands of spillover visitors from the national park. Stickball games during a two-day event will reinforce a lesson about cheating and the appearance of the moon. Fairgrounds supervisor Frieda Huskey recalled a legend of a player on the losing team picking up the ball, which is against the rules, and throwing it against the solid sky, so its appearance is small and pale. When the moon or sun is eclipsed, it's because a great frog is trying to swallow it, she said. In response, Cherokees beat drums and fire guns to scare off the frog and ensure the moon or sun don't disappear forever — just as they will do during Monday's solar eclipse, she said. Once the eclipse is over, Cherokee warriors will dance to celebrate the great frog's defeat. When the sun and the moon disappeared during eclipses in the past, it frightened indigenous people who believed they displeased the gods, said Stanford "Butch" Devinney, an Eastern Shoshone spiritual leader and teacher at Wyoming Indian Schools on the Wind River Reservation. The way he sees it now, the eclipse is an opportunity for renewal. "Maybe our way of thinking might change, our behavior," he said. "People will have a different outlook on life. Maybe it will change for the better. Be a different person." Students at two Northern Arapaho schools that share a reservation with the Eastern Shoshone will be using telescopes donated by NASA and special glasses to view the eclipse. Principal Elberta Monroe said teachers have been talking to students about the solar eclipse for months. It's "something students are going to remember for a lifetime," she said. Baldwin will call her children into the living room Monday, share traditional Navajo stories and ask them to meditate and reflect on what they want out of school, athletics and life, she said. For one daughter, the focus would be acceptance from elders on her role in rodeo. Baldwin will ask the children to concentrate and wish for happiness and health for their family, friends and all of humanity. "There's a little conversation, but there's that constant reminder that we need to be quiet," she said.
BY ASSOCIATED PRESS
08/21/2017 08:15 AM
TULSA, Okla. (AP) — The Cherokee Nation is urging a federal judge to allow a tribal lawsuit against distributors and retailers of opioid medications to be litigated in the tribe’s court. CN Attorney General Todd Hembree has filed written arguments with U.S. District Judge Terence Kern in a lawsuit that alleges the companies have contributed to “an epidemic of prescription opioid abuse” among the tribe’s citizens. The lawsuit alleges that six distribution and pharmaceutical companies have created conditions in which “vast amounts of opioids have flowed freely from manufacturers to abusers and drug dealers” within the tribe’s territory. Opioid-related addiction has taken the lives of hundreds of CN citizens and cost the tribe hundreds of millions of dollars in health care costs, the lawsuit says. The companies have asked Kern to block the lawsuit, saying there is no legal basis for the CN’s claim that it has authority within a 14-county area in northeastern Oklahoma. But in legal papers accepted by Kern on Wednesday, Hembree says an Aug. 8 ruling by the 10th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals “provides a substantial alternative basis” for the lawsuit to be tried in tribal court. The appeals court’s ruling involved Patrick Dwayne Murphy, who was convicted and sentenced to death in state court for the 1999 killing of a McIntosh County man. The court ruled Murphy should have been tried in federal court because he is Native American and the death occurred in “Indian Country.” Hembree says the CN has legal jurisdiction in the area where the tribe’s citizens were allegedly harmed by opioid addiction and that the lawsuit should remain in tribal court for reasons similar to those cited by the appeals court. Kern has not indicated when he may hand down a ruling.
BY ASSOCIATED PRESS
08/20/2017 02:00 PM
ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. (AP) — Organizers of one of North America's most prominent American Indian powwows say they're already gearing up for next year's event. They are kicking off their promotional campaign for the 2018 Gathering of Nations on Friday with the release of the event's official poster. The 35th annual event takes place April 26-28 at the state fairgrounds in Albuquerque. The Miss Indian World Talent Competition will be held downtown at the city's convention center. New for next year will be a parade featuring Native American riders in full regalia. Organizers say the parade is meant to recognize the importance that the horse culture holds for some tribes. The gathering usually draws tens of thousands of people, including dancers, singers and drummers representing tribes from across the United States, Canada and elsewhere.
BY ASSOCIATED PRESS
08/19/2017 02:00 PM
OKLAHOMA CITY (AP) — Health officials say more than a half-dozen cases of West Nile virus have been reported in Oklahoma so far this year. The Oklahoma Department of Health says the cases have been confirmed in Cleveland, Muskogee, Oklahoma and Tulsa counties. According to health officials, most people are infected with the virus from June through September, with the number of infections peaking in mid-August. The illness is transmitted to people by infected mosquitoes. Health officials say the best way to prevent the disease is to avoid mosquito bites by using insect repellants and wearing long sleeves, pants and socks when outdoors. According to preliminary data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 200 cases of the illness have been reported nationwide so far this year.
BY STAFF REPORTS
08/18/2017 03:15 PM
ROCKY MOUNTAIN, Okla. – The Rocky Mountain Community Organization is hosting two events in August at its community building near Stilwell. RMCO will host the Adair County Historical & Genealogical Association at 6 p.m., Aug. 22. ACH&GA volunteers will be on hand to discuss area history and genealogy. Beans and cornbread will be served at 5:30 p.m., and everyone is welcome to attend. The Adair County Historical & Genealogical Association is a non-profit organization maintained by volunteers. Located in the rehabilitated 1915 Kansas City Southern Railroad Depot in Stilwell, the association collects countywide research materials, genealogies of county families and artifacts of historical and cultural significance. Volunteers provide research and genealogical assistance to individuals interested in learning more about their family’s past. Tours of the county history museum provide access to artifacts that provide a deeper appreciation of the county’s history. Also, at 7 p.m., Aug. 26, RMCO will host a Movie Night where “Guardians of the Galaxy, Vol. 2” will be shown. Admission is free, and the concession stand will open at 6 p.m. Seating is available, but moviegoers are welcome to bring their own chairs. People also have an opportunity to win a door prize by signing in when they arrive. For more information, call 918-696-4965.
BY STACIE GUTHRIE
Reporter – @cp_sguthrie
08/18/2017 08:15 AM
OOLOGAH, Okla. – For more than 20 years, the Will Rogers Memorial Museum in Claremore has paid homage to Will Rogers and Wiley Post with an annual fly-in at the Will Rogers Birthplace Ranch. Rogers, a Cherokee Nation citizen, and Post, a famed aviator, died in a plane crash on Aug. 15, 1935, in Point Barrow, Alaska. Tad Jones, the museum’s executive director, said this year commemorates the 82nd anniversary of their passing. “His (Rogers) character is what we want to try to keep alive. He was a guy that respected everybody, which I think it’d be great for our entire nation now to show that respect towards others,” he said. “I know Will Rogers, if he was here, he would love it because he was a man that just loved action activities, and this event has just gotten to be huge over the last number of years.” The event kicked off at 7:30 a.m. Jones said people and planes began arriving as early as 6:45 a.m. The free event offered more than 100 planes, a car show, Cherokee storytelling, 19th century games for children and the opportunity to tour Rogers’ birthplace home. The planes landed on an airstrip adjacent to the Will Rogers Birthplace Ranch allowing visitors to get an up-close look at them. “You get to walk around with the planes, so it’s not just looking at them from a distance. But when they land you can walk out among the planes, and sometimes they’ll let you sit in the cockpits,” Jones said. Rogers’ great-granddaughter, Jennifer Rogers-Etcheverry, said the event is a great way to continue Rogers’ legacy while helping others learn his story. “This is what I love the most is seeing these young children out here with a mixture of older generations because that’s who needs to learn about Will Rogers is these up-and-coming children,” she said. “I am just so grateful that people want to continue his legacy, and to bring their families out to something that’s a tradition like this. And what better place than his actual birth home.” Rogers-Etcheverry said seeing people honor Rogers’ means “everything” to her. “There’s nothing negative when you talk to people who remember him or have heard about him, it’s always positive,” she said. “He was such a role model to so many people, so that means everything to me.” Tribal Councilor Keith Austin said the tribe annually contributes to the museum and ranch to ensure they remain “healthy and strong.” This year the CN gave $25,000. “This is a state of Oklahoma facility, and they are really struggling with their budget,” he said. “It’s important to us as Cherokee people to support this and make sure that it remains healthy and strong.” For the past three years there has also been a National Day of Remembrance during the fly-in for those who have died in small airplane crashes. “We have Will and Wiley who died in a small airplane crash, and so we want to honor anyone who has died in a small airplane crash. You hear a tragedy with the big airplanes, but there is a lot of people who have passed away in small airplane crashes,” Jones said. “At 10 o’clock (a.m.) we have a National Day of Remembrance that we put on Facebook all over the country, and we honor those that have died in small airplane crashes. We have a 35 second moment of silence, which is for 1935 when Will Rogers and Wiley Post died.” For more information, visit <a href="http://www.willrogers.com" target="_blank">www.willrogers.com</a>.