Summer brings West Nile Virus threat

BY STAFF REPORTS
06/05/2017 12:00 PM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – As spring turns to summer, more people will venture outdoors for activities, which means increased exposure to mosquitos and possibly the West Nile Virus some mosquitos carry.

Experts at the Centers for Disease Control believe WNV is established as a seasonal epidemic in North America that flares up in the summer and continues into the fall.

According to the CDC, the virus can be a life-altering and sometimes fatal disease. In 2012, the CDC reported 5,674 confirmed human cases of WNV with 286 of them resulting in death. The CDC states that every state in the U.S., except Hawaii and Alaska, reported WNV cases in 2012. In Oklahoma, 178 humans were diagnosed with WNV with 15 deaths in 2012, according to the Oklahoma State Department of Health.

The CDC states that about one in 150 people infected with WNV will develop severe illness. The severe symptoms can include high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbness and paralysis. These symptoms may last several weeks, and neurological effects may be permanent.

Up to 20 percent of the people who become infected have symptoms such as fever, headache, and body aches, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes swollen lymph glands or a skin rash on the chest, stomach and back. Symptoms can last for as short as a few days, though even healthy people have become sick for several weeks. Approximately 80 percent of people who are infected with WNV will not show any symptoms at all, according to the CDC.

The CDC has predicted it could be a bad year because of weather conditions that promoted breeding of the mosquitoes that spread the virus to people.

In Oklahoma, the WNV season runs from May to November. People are at greatest risk of exposure to infected mosquitoes from July through October in the state. People of any age can become ill after being bitten by an infected mosquito, but those over the age of 50 are at greater risk of developing serious illness involving the nervous system.

The OSDH advises use of insect repellents – particularly those containing DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus (PMD), or IR 3535 – when outdoors. The types of mosquitoes that transmit WNV are most active during early morning and evening hours, so take mosquito bite precautions during those times. It is also recommended to drain or treat standing water around your home with a mosquito larvacide to reduce mosquito-breeding sites.

How does WNV spread?

Most often, WNV is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds. Infected mosquitoes can then spread WNV to humans and other animals.

In a small number of cases, WNV also has been spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, breastfeeding and even during pregnancy from mother to baby.

How soon do infected people get sick?

People typically develop symptoms between three and 14 days after they are bitten by an infected mosquito.

How is WNV infection treated?

There is no specific treatment for WNV infection. In cases with milder symptoms, people experience symptoms such as fever and aches that pass on their own, although even healthy people have become sick for several weeks. In more severe cases, people usually need to go to the hospital where they can receive supportive treatment, including intravenous fluids, help with breathing and nursing care.

What should I do if I think I have WNV?

Milder WNV illness improves on its own and people do not necessarily need to seek medical attention for this infection though they may choose to do so. If you develop symptoms of severe WNV illness such as unusually severe headaches or confusion, seek medical attention immediately. Severe WNV illness usually requires hospitalization. Pregnant women and nursing mothers are encouraged to talk to their doctor if they develop symptoms that could be WNV.

What is the risk of getting sick from WNV?

People over 50 at higher risk to get severe illness. People over the age of 50 are more likely to develop serious symptoms of WNV if they do get sick and should take special care to avoid mosquito bites.

Is there a vaccine against West Nile encephalitis?

No, but some groups are working towards developing a vaccine.

What can be done to prevent outbreaks of WNV?

Prevention and control of WNV and other arboviral diseases is most effectively accomplished through integrated vector management programs. These programs should include surveillance for WNV activity in mosquito vectors, birds, horses, other animals and humans and implementation of appropriate mosquito control measures to reduce mosquito populations when necessary. Additionally, when virus activity is detected in an area, residents should be alerted and advised to increase measures to reduce contact with mosquitoes.

How often should repellent be reapplied?

In general you should re-apply repellent if you are being bitten by mosquitoes. Always follow the directions on the product you are using. Sweating, perspiration or getting wet may mean that you need to re-apply repellent more frequently. Repellents containing a higher concentration (higher percentage) of active ingredient typically provide longer-lasting protection.

Which mosquito repellents work best?

CDC recommends using products that have been shown to work in scientific trials and that contain active ingredients that have been registered with the Environmental Protection Agency for use as insect repellents on skin or clothing. When EPA registers a repellent, they evaluate the product for efficacy and potential effects on human beings and the environment. EPA registration means that EPA does not expect a product, when used according to the instructions on the label, to cause unreasonable adverse effects to human health or the environment.

Of the active ingredients registered with the EPA, CDC believes that two have demonstrated a higher degree of efficacy in the peer-reviewed, scientific literature. Products containing these active ingredients typically provide longer-lasting protection than others:

• DEET

• Picaridin

Oil of lemon eucalyptus, a plant-based repellent, is also registered with EPA. In two recent scientific publications, when oil of lemon eucalyptus was tested against mosquitoes found in the U.S. it provided protection similar to repellents with low concentrations of DEET.

Can insect repellents be used on children?

Repellent products must state any age restriction. If there is none, EPA has not required a restriction on the use of the product.

According to the label, oil of lemon eucalyptus products should NOT be used on children under 3 years. In addition to EPA’s decisions about use of products on children, look to the opinion of the American Academy of Pediatrics. The AAP does have an opinion on the use of DEET in children. AAP has not issued recommendations or opinions on the use of picaridin or oil of lemon eucalyptus for children.

What guidelines are available for using a repellent on children?

• When using repellent on a child, apply it to your own hands and then rub them on your child. Avoid children’s eyes and mouth and use it sparingly around their ears.

• Do not apply repellent to children’s hands.

• Do not allow young children to apply insect repellent to themselves; have an adult do it for them.
• Keep repellents out of reach of children.

• Do not apply repellent under clothing. If repellent is applied to clothing, wash treated clothing before wearing again.

How else can I protect children from mosquito bites?

Using repellents on the skin is not the only way to avoid mosquito bites. Children (and adults) can wear clothing with long pants and long sleeves while outdoors. DEET or other repellents such as permethrin can also be applied to clothing, as mosquitoes may bite through thin fabric. Also, mosquito netting can be used over infant carriers.

Prevention Tips

Be aware of peak mosquito hours

The hours from dusk to dawn are peak biting times for many species of mosquitoes. Take extra care to use repellent and protective clothing during evening and early morning or consider avoiding outdoor activities during these times.

Install or repair screens

Some mosquitoes like to come indoors. Keep them outside by having well-fitting screens on both windows and doors. Offer to help neighbors whose screens might be in bad shape.

Dispose of breeding grounds

Also, it may be possible to reduce the number of mosquitoes in the area by getting rid of containers with standing water that provide breeding places for mosquitoes.

Help reduce the number of mosquitoes in areas outdoors where you work or play, by draining sources of standing water. In this way, you reduce the number of places mosquitoes can lay their eggs and breed.

At least once or twice a week, empty water from flowerpots, pet food and water dishes, birdbaths, swimming pool covers, buckets, barrels, and cans.

Check for clogged rain gutters and clean them out.

Remove discarded tires, and other items that could collect water.

Be sure to check for containers or trash in places that may be hard to see, such as under bushes or under your home.

Health

BY BRITTNEY BENNETT
Reporter – @cp_bbennett
05/25/2018 08:30 AM
SALINA – Proper diets reflecting the onset of puberty and growth for children ages 9-12 and teenagers should be a critical focus for parents, said Cherokee Nation Clinical Dietitian Tonya Swim. “Encouraging healthy choices to help provide adequate energy for growth and development should be the focus,” Swim said. “There is a change that not getting adequate nutrients can result in deficiencies, which could lead to loss of height, osteoporosis and delayed sexual maturation.” Swim recommends establishing healthy habits early for children, including breakfast. “Having a healthy breakfast enhances brain function related to memory, testing and school attendance. Having a high-fiber breakfast with protein, fruit and a low-fat dairy is a great way to start the day off. An example of this could be a whole-grain English muffin with an egg patty prepared using a cooking spray and sliced avocado – the perfect quick breakfast sandwich.” As children mature into teenagers, Swim said they need diets that provide proper nutrients and fuel. “Many teens will double their weight and can add up to 20 percent in height, and they need to make sure and get enough nutrients like calcium to support healthy bone growth. Teens will continue to have growth spurts, and it’s important for them to remember that their body needs food to help fuel healthy growth, especially if they are an athlete. But food for fuel is also important for those active with music or art. Their brains are working to hardwire their ability to process the skills needed for all activities.” Parent should keep taste and appearance in mind when preparing meals, Swim said, as they seem to be important factors to teens. “Health and energy needs don’t matter so much to (teens), so as parents we need to provide those healthy choices in a way that is pleasing to eat and look at.” Staying hydrated is also important as children and teenagers begin participating in sports and other activities. Swim recommends drinking two, 8-ounce glasses of water two hours before an event, as well as sports drinks during and after an event as a way to stay hydrated. “Sports drinks provide fluid, carbohydrates and electrolytes during extreme exercise,” she said. “This helps provide fuel for muscles, help maintain blood sugar levels and quench thirst. They also help to prevent dehydration. For specifics on what you or your student-athlete need contact a registered dietitian who is a board-certified specialist in sports nutrition.” For families on the go to, Swim said planning is a way to keep eating healthy. “Every sporting event has a schedule. Take time once a week to map those out on a calendar and then sit down with the family to see who can help out where. Also, think about preparing extra on nights that you can cook. Then you just need to heat something up. Using the crockpot can be a lifesaver, then dinner is ready when you get home.” For late night events, she said prepare sandwiches when possible and keep snacks handy such as whole fruit, apples, bananas, oranges, walnuts, almonds and skim mozzarella string cheese. Swim said parents must also keep in mind that males and females mature differently and to alter their diets accordingly. “Because girls and boys mature at different ages and their growth spurts occur at different times, there are separate calorie needs. For example, as girls mature one place to focus would be on getting enough iron. The body uses iron to make hemoglobin, the part of the red blood cells that carry oxygen.” Swim said multi-grain rice with salmon and dark green salads are ways to add iron into meals, but recommends contacting a pediatrician or registered dietitian for diet needs.
BY STAFF REPORTS
05/22/2018 12:00 PM
TAHLEQUAH, Okla. – Sequoyah High School is once again participating in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Summer Food Program. It will run May 29 through June 28, Monday through Thursday, at the SHS cafeteria. The program provides nutritious meals at no charge to children during summer vacation. Children aged 18 and under regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age or disability are eligible to receive meals. Breakfast will be served from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m. and lunch will be from noon to 1 p.m. Adults may eat breakfast for $2.25 and lunch for $4. The cafeteria is at 17091 S. Muskogee Ave. For more information, call 918-453-5190.
BY STAFF REPORTS
04/27/2018 04:00 PM
TULSA – Cherokee Nation clinical dietitian Tonya Swim was awarded “Outstanding Dietitian of the Year for Outstanding Career of Contributions to the Dietetics Profession” on April 19 at the Oklahoma Academy of Nutrition and Dietetic Convention. Swim, who works at the A-Mo Health Center in Salina, is involved with the OkAND organization as public relations and communication chairwoman and has helped increase its social media presence by promoting registered dietitians as nutrition experts and renewing a partnership with Oklahoma City Fox News by coordinating weekly cooking segments. She also served as chairwoman for the 2018 OkAND convention and chaired the event in 2016. As chairwoman, she worked to provide Oklahoma’s registered dietitians and dietetic technicians with opportunities for continuing education. “It was an honor and I am humbled to have received this award. I give most of the credit to the amazing group of dietitians in our state for helping my ideas become reality and to the wonderful company I work for in allowing me to grow as a dietician. I am so blessed with a supportive family who push me to be the best I can. Thank you to everyone,” Swim said.
BY BRITTNEY BENNETT
Reporter – @cp_bbennett
04/25/2018 09:30 AM
SALLISAW – When Cherokee Nation citizen Shacotah Sanders lost his hair after undergoing chemotherapy for Stage 2 Hodgkin lymphoma last year, his mother, Tammie Simms, shaved her head in solidarity. “Chemotherapy is a really long process. It’s painful. It’s stressful. It’s really emotional because I lost all my hair,” Sanders said. “That was something I was really scared of right there, but the main thing that keeps me going is my mom. She’s like the only one that really keeps me going.” This familial support is once more a shoulder for Sanders to lie on because while his hair has grown back, so too have the cancerous spots in his neck. It is a possibility that he had accepted after going into remission in October. “I had prepared myself for it because there’s always that possibility that it could come back,” Sanders said. “Every three months I have a checkup, a PET scan, and we decided to do one in early March this year. We did it, waited about two weeks to get the results. We went back to my oncologist doctor, and he said that it came back, but it wasn’t as big as last time and not as bad. He said it was in the same spot and at the same stage, Stage 2.” Sanders began undergoing 22 rounds of radiation on April 3 to again battle the cancerous disease, which starts in the white blood cells called lymphocytes. It causes uncontrollable cell reproduction that can potentially invade other tissues throughout the body and disrupt normal tissue function, according to the American Cancer Society. Sanders travels from Sallisaw to Tahlequah’s Northeast Oklahoma Cancer Center five days a week for his radiation sessions and will have checkups every three to six months after the treatments. “The radiation, they take you to a back room with a really big machine and you just lay on it, like a flat surface, and then they put a mesh mask over your face and tilt your head back so they can get to the spots where the cancer is. There’s no needles involved or anything. It’s just a big machine shooting radiation down on your body,” he said. The first time Sanders noticed something amiss with his health was in March 2017. “Every time I went running I noticed my breathing was off quite a bit, so I was just feeling around on my neck and I found these lumps on the right side of my neck, below my jaw. It was just affecting my breathing a lot, so I went to the doctor and had them check it out,” he said. After a PET scan and surgery, doctors removed two of Sanders’ lymph nodes. “They sent them off to be tested and they came back cancerous. They told me it was Stage 2 Hodgkin lymphoma and we started treatment last year in April,” Sanders said. Doctors prescribed Sanders four rounds of chemotherapy at Warren Clinic Medical Oncology in Tahlequah. “I was supposed to do four, but three rounds did it,” Sanders said. “During that time, I still went to work, and I didn’t feel good at all going to work, but I still worked my eight hours a day. I still went to work, put a smile on my face. I had a really good attitude about it.” Though the cancer has returned and forced Sanders to put classes at Carl Albert State College on hold while continuing to work, he remains positive and recommends anyone going through a diagnosis to do the same. “Just have a positive attitude about everything. Surround yourself with positive things, people, family and friends,” he said. Sanders has a GoFundMe account to help with expenses. To donate, visit <a href="http://www.gofundme.com/hodgkins-lymphoma-fight" target="_blank">www.gofundme.com/hodgkins-lymphoma-fight</a>. <strong>Symptoms and Info</strong> Possible symptoms of Hodgkin ymphoma include fever, drenching night sweats and weight loss constituting at least 10 percent of a person’s body weight over the course of six months, according to the American Cancer Society. For more information, visit <a href="www.cancer.org/cancer/hodgkin-lymphoma.html " target="_blank">www.cancer.org/cancer/hodgkin-lymphoma.html</a>.
BY LINDSEY BARK
Reporter
04/20/2018 08:30 AM
TAHLEQUAH – Northeastern State University’s Oklahoma College of Optometry goes back 39 years in its relationship with the Cherokee Nation and in providing Cherokees eye care. NSUOCO works with nine CN clinics, also known as Rural Eye Programs, in Tahlequah, Sallisaw, Stilwell, Jay, Salina, Vinita, Nowata, Muskogee and Ochelata and services 40,000 to 60,000 patients annually. Its first graduating class was in 1983 and has since averaged 28 graduates annually from its four-year doctorate program. The NSU campus clinic contains 20 exam rooms and specialty clinics for dry eye, contact lenses, low vision, vision therapy and infant vision clinic. If a REP is unable to provide a type of eye care, patients are sent to the NSU clinic for further evaluation and treatment. Nate Lighthizer, NSUOCO Continuing Medical Education director and doctor of optometry, said the college has seen patients from 2 months old to 102 years old. “We all have different vision needs. That’s one of the beauties of having a college is we have 35 faculty members that are either here, in (W.W.) Hastings (Hospital) or in the REPs, and a lot them have different interests. We have doctors that specialize in infant vision and vision therapy. They’re the expert in the 6-month-old and the 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-year-old. Other doctors, they’re the expert in the 80-year-olds,” Lighthizer said. He said students begin in “didactically heavy” classes, building foundations and learning about systemic diseases, eye diseases, procedures when giving primary care, looking at the eye with microscopes and other program aspects. He said students begin seeing patients at the end of the second year and into the third year. CN citizen and fourth-year student Seth Rich said he applied for the NSU program because of the experience it would give him treating patients by the time he graduates. “I’m from this area, so I wanted to serve basically in the population that I grew up in. Here at NSU we see more patients compared to any other optometry school by the time we graduate. We have more patient interactions that any other optometry school is going to have and more clinical experience because we start seeing patients a year early than most other schools,” he said. Rich said he also has experience using the REPs and seeing the eye care needs among Cherokees. “We deal with a lot of diabetic patients here at Cherokee Nation, and that has a really large effect on the eyes. Being able to be in this area and serve a population that has a huge need for us is a big deal because I personally have a lot of family ties to this area want to be in a community where I feel like I’m going to be contributing and giving back and helping the overall health of the population with health and exams,” he said. Rich said the program prepares students to “go out into the real world” and treat patients of any need. “I feel very confident going out into the population and serving basically anybody that walks in the door.” CN citizen Tara Comingdeer Fields, who is in her first year at NSUOCO, said she chose the program because of her area ties. “It’s not specifically just Cherokee Indians that I want to serve, but overall Native Americans. My background is I grew up in a traditional family, so the medicines and traditions that we did just kind of stuck with me, and now I want to help people.” Comingdeer Fields and Rich are recipients of Indian Health Services scholarships for optometry and will work under an IHS contract upon graduation. Lighthizer said CN citizens make up between 10 to 15 percent of the NSUOCO’s students and that it’s usually rewarding for a Cherokee to grow up using CN eye care services and then go through the program and become a provider. “It’s just a very mutually beneficial relationship between Cherokee Nation to be able to have all of these patients seen and then obviously for the education for students to be able to see patients and hone their skills.”
BY STAFF REPORTS
04/19/2018 04:00 PM
SANTA ANA PUEBLO, N.M. – The Notah Begay III (NB3) Foundation, with a grant from the Comcast Foundation and in partnership with Cultivating Coders, is accepting applications for a national competition for Native youth to design a mobile app focusing on improving the health and nutrition of Native youth – designed by Native youth. The competition is open to individuals or teams of Native youth, ages 13-18, experienced in coding, design and digital media and/or mobile technology. Participants must submit a completed application with supporting documents that includes a four-page outline and video of the app. Contest applications will be accepted until July 1. Learn about the contest criteria, eligibility and application process at: <a href="http://www.nb3foundation.org/healthy-kids-healthy-futures-app-contest/" target="_blank">http://www.nb3foundation.org/healthy-kids-healthy-futures-app-contest/</a>. “The NB3 Foundation recognizes that more and more Native youth are using their mobile devices and APPs to track their physical activity, nutrition and even water intake. This competition is an integral step for the Foundation in the direction of connecting youth with technology to build healthier lifestyles,” NB3 Foundation President and CEO Justin Kii Huenemann, said. The contest’s intent is to engage and challenge creative and tech-savvy Native youth from across Indian Country to think creatively, culturally and digitally about their diet, nutrition, exercise and fitness; and turn that knowledge into a solution or problem-solving mobile app that may be used by the NB3 Foundation. A panel of NB3 Foundation staff and experts will choose a first-, second- and third-place winners. The first-place winner will proceed to work with Cultivating Coders, a software company and social enterprise focused on priming the next generation of coders to develop, design and implement their own solutions to address their local challenges, to further develop the app into a minimum viable product. For more information or questions about the application process, email Simone Duran, NB3 Foundation program assistant, at <a href="mailto: simone@nb3f.org">simone@nb3f.org</a> or call 505-867-0775, ext. 104.