Little-known Cherokee Female Seminary facts shared
WESTVILLE, Okla. – Guest speaker Luke Williams shared little-known facts about the construction and use of the second Cherokee Female Seminary during the Goingsnake District Heritage Association meeting on April 18.
In October 1846, Principal Chief John Ross proposed the creation of two Cherokee Nation high schools or seminaries, one for males and one for females. Construction began in 1847 with the male seminary located about a mile and a half southwest of Tahlequah and the female seminary located in Park Hill, about a mile and half south of town.
“Both of these structures consisted of three-storied brick buildings with classical-style columns on three sides. The buildings measured 185 feet long and 109 feet wide, and each one of these buildings cost in excess of $60,000,” Williams said.
Some subjects taught at the schools included geometry, Greek history, algebra, geography and vocal music.
“These rigorous academics prepared young Cherokees to become educators,” he said.
On Easter Sunday, April 10, 1887, the Cherokee Female Seminary caught fire and was a complete loss. Only the exterior brickwork and the classical brick columns remained standing. Three of those columns still stand in front of the Cherokee Heritage Center.
A month later, Principal Chief Dennis Bushyhead recommended the reconstruction of the seminary and signed a bill on May 21, 1887, to order its construction on the north edge of Tahlequah near a fresh water source called Hendricks Spring.
Charles Edward Ilsley of St. Louis, who owned an architectural firm, was chosen to design the building. He completed its design in July 1887, and it called for a three-story brick building that had two main wings in an L shape. The Richardsonian-Romanesque style of the building called for two three-story towers with conical roofs, a five-story bell tower and numerous round-top arches over windows and doors.
The construction project was to cost $57,500. The CN National Council requested a project completion date of Aug. 1, 1888. Construction began Nov. 3, 1887. Because the nearest railroad was 30 miles away in Muskogee, the construction project relied on materials that were acquired locally, Williams said.
“Quarries near Tahlequah provided the lime and sandstone necessary for the large foundation stone and the window sills. Yellow pine timber provided the lumber for the joists, the studding and the flooring, and local kilns fired the extra bricks required for this project,” he said.
In autumn 1888, the council approved an additional $4,000 for completion of the project, which included funding for a wrought-iron fence surrounding it.
On April 18, 1889, Ilsley transferred the completed building into the hands of the tribe’s building committee, and on May 7 a celebration was held “to celebrate the revival of the Cherokee Female Seminary.” On Aug. 26, the seminary opened its doors with an enrollment of 232 young women.
Williams said the building contained modern conveniences including indoor toilets, hot and cold water, a steam heating system and a trunk elevator. Also, the building had 356 windows and two 70-foot chimneys to provide ventilation for the building’s boiler. The 98-foot bell tower on the east side of the building stood out on the north side of Tahlequah.
“The L-shaped building consisted of a main east-to-west wing measuring 226-feet long and 78-feet wide. A smaller north-to-south wing measured 146-feet long and 40-feet wide,” he said.
The first floor contained a front vestibule that included a fireplace, a hallway that ran down the length of the 226-foot long building, five large classrooms, a parlor, chapel, kitchen, kitchen storage, and a dining room (in the north-south wing), which was the largest room on the first floor.
The second floor contained only dormitory rooms that lined both sides of the hallways. The third floor contained large bedrooms with closets and smaller bedrooms with no closets. The far northeast corner of the third floor contained the sick ward.
About three years after the seminary’s construction, the toilets and the building’s sewer system failed. The system was set up to allow sewer to empty into a pit about 300 yards from the building, Williams said. Water quickly filled the pit and water and sewage backed up into the seminary.
“If that’s not bad enough, this sewer pit was only 100 yards from Hendricks Spring. Remember, this is where they are getting their source of fresh drinking water,” he said. “The Cherokee Advocate referred to the seminary’s plumbing problems as, quote, ‘a health destroyer.’ After several students died and the constant fear of typhoid fever, the Cherokee National Council ordered the indoor toilets sealed. After this closure, the students used a row of outdoor privies that were constructed out on the east lawn.”
In March 1909, the “dissolving” CN government sold the seminary building to the new state of Oklahoma for $45,000. In September 1909, the doors reopened as the Northeastern State Normal School.
Today, the building is used for classrooms for Northeastern State University. On May 7, 2014, CN, NSU and state officials celebrated the 125th anniversary of the building being opened on May 7, 1889.
ᎢᎪᏓ ᏗᎦᏚᎲ, ᎣᎦᎵᎰᎹ. – ᎦᏬᏂᏍᎩ Luke Williams ᎤᏃᎮᏢ ᎤᏅᏛ ᎢᎦ ᎤᎾᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎠᎴ ᏄᏅᏔᏅ ᏔᎵᏁ ᎤᎾᏁᏍᎨᏓ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᎨᏯ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎤᏬᏂᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎢᎾᏓᏛᎠᎾ ᏍᎦᏚᎩ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᏅ ᎤᎾᏙᏢᎯ ᏓᎾᏠᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᎧᏬᏂ ᏁᎳᏚᏏᏁ.
ᎾᎿ ᏚᏂᏃᏗ ᎧᎸ ᏁᎳᏚ ᎢᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏅᎩᏍᎪ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ, ᎤᎬᏫᏳᎯ ᏣᏂ ᎫᏫᏍᎫᏫ ᎤᏃᎮᎸ ᎤᏃᎮᎸ ᏗᎪᏢᏗ ᏔᎵ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᏅᏔ ᎤᎾᏕᎶᏆᎥ ᎤᎪᏛ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗᎢ, ᏌᏊ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏧᏣ ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊ ᎾᏍᏊ ᎠᏂᎨᏳᏣ. ᎠᎾᏁᏍᎨᎲ ᎤᎾᎴᏅᎲ ᏁᎳᏚ ᎢᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏅᎩᏍᎪ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏍᏒᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏧᏣ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗᎢ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎾᎿ ᏑᏟᎶᏓ ᎠᏰᏟ ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᎤᏕᎵᎬ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏓᎵᏆ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᎨᏳᏣ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏭᏂᏴᏍᏗ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏎ ᏑᏟᎶᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏰᏟ ᎤᎦᎾᏩ ᎢᏗᏢ ᏓᎵᏆ ᎦᏚᎲᎢ.
“ᎢᏧᎳ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏁᏍᎨᏍᎬ ᏦᎢ ᎢᏗᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏂᏚᏅᏁᎸ ᏗᎬᏓᏅ ᏚᏅᏔᏅ ᎾᎿ ᏧᏔᎾ ᏚᏁᏘᏁ ᏦᎢ ᏂᏚᏅᏏᏴ. ᎯᎠ ᎠᎾᏁᏍᎨᏍᎬ ᎠᏟᎶᏓ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏁᎳᏍᎪ ᎯᏍᎩ ᎢᎳᏏᏓ ᎢᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏐᏁᎳ ᎢᎳᏏᏗ ᎢᏯᏖᎾ, ᎠᎴ ᏌᏊᎭ ᎯᎠ ᏓᎾᏁᏍᎨᏍᎬ ᏓᎵᎬᏩᏢᏍᎬ ᏑᏓᎵᏍᎪ ᏯᎦᏴᎵ,” ᎠᏗᏍᎬ Williams.
ᎢᎦᏓᏃ ᏗᎪᏪᎵ ᏓᏅᏗᏍᎬ ᏓᎾᏕᏲᎲᏍᎬ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ geometry, Greek history, algebra, geography ᎠᎴ vocal ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏍᏗ.
ᎾᎿ ᎤᎵᎮᎵᏍᏗ ᏧᏪᏥ ᏧᏅᏍᎦᎶᏗ ᎤᎾᏙᏓᏆᏍᎬ ᎦᏰᏉᏂ ᏍᎪᎯᏁ, ᏁᎳᏚ ᎢᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏁᎵᏍᎪ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ, ᎾᎿ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᎨᏳᏣ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎪᎱᏍᏗ ᏧᎵᏍᏙᏔᏁ ᎤᏥᏠᏎ ᎠᎴ ᏂᎦᏓᏊ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎤᎪᏁᎢ.
ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏩᏌ ᏗᎬᏓᏅ ᏗᎬᏔᏅ ᏚᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎸ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏔᎾ ᏥᏕᎨᏘ ᏧᏩᏌ ᏕᎦᏙᎨ. ᏦᎢ ᎢᎦ Ꮟ ᏕᎨᏔ ᎢᎬᏯᏗᏢ ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᏧᎾᏓᎴᏅ ᎠᏰᏟ.
ᏏᏅᏓ ᎢᏴ ᏭᏟᎢᎶᏟ, ᎤᎬᏫᏁᎯ Dennis Bushyhead ᎣᏏ ᏱᎦ ᏱᎦᏁᏍᎨᎯᏎᏂ ᎯᎠ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏃᏪᎳᏅ ᎠᏔᏲᎯᎯ ᎠᏂᏍᎬᏘ ᏔᎵᏍᎪ ᏌᏊᎯᏁ, ᏁᎳᏚ ᎢᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏁᎵᏍᎪ ᎦᎵᏉᎩᏁ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ, ᎤᏓᏅᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏁᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏝ ᎠᏍᏛ ᏓᎵᏆ ᎾᎠᏂᎨ ᎢᏤᎢ ᎠᎹ ᎦᏁᎲ ᏚᏙᎥ Hendrick’s ᎦᏅᎪᎬᎢ.
Charles Edward Ilsley of St. Louis, ᎾᏍᏯ ᎤᏤᎵ ᎨᏎ ᎾᏍᎩ architectural firm. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏑᏰᏓ ᎨᏎ ᎾᎿ ᏧᏟᎶᏍᏙᏗ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎠᏁᎩᏍᏗᎢ.ᎤᏍᏆᏕ ᏓᏟᎶᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎦᏰᏉᏂ ᏁᎳᏚ ᎢᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏁᎵᏍᎪ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏦᎢ ᏯᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏗᎬᏓᏅ ᎬᏔᏅ ᎠᏁᏍᎨᎲᎢ ᎾᎿ ᏔᎵ ᏂᏚᎬᏫᏁᏒ ᏕᎪᏯᏕ ᎤᏠᏯ L ᎤᏙᏢᏒᎢ. ᎾᎿ Richardsonian—Romanesque ᎤᏠᏯ ᎠᏁᎩᏍᏗ ᏚᏙᎡᎢ ᎾᎿ ᏔᎵ ᎠᎴ ᏦᎢ ᎢᎬᎸᎳᏗ ᎾᎿ conical ᎦᎵᏦᏘ, ᎯᏍᎩ ᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᎤᎭᎸᏂ ᎤᎾᏗᎢ ᎠᎴ ᎢᎸᏍᎦ ᏗᎦᏐᏆᎸ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᎢᎬᎾ ᎾᎿ ᏦᎳᏂ ᎠᎴ ᏗᎦᎶᏍᏗᎢ.
ᎾᏍᎩ ᎯᎠ ᏳᎾᏁᏍᎨᎯ ᎯᎩᏍᎪ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᎯᏍᎩᏧᏈ ᏧᎵᎬᏩᎶᏗ ᎨᏎᎢ. ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎩ ᎤᏂᏁᏤ ᎯᎠ ᎤᎾᏁᎢᏍᏗ ᎤᏂᏍᏆᏗᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎦᎶᏂ ᎢᎬᏱ, ᏁᎳᏚᎢᏍᎪᎯᏧ ᏁᎵᏍᎪ ᏧᏁᎳ. ᎠᎾᏁᏍᎨᏍᎬ ᎤᎾᎴᏅᎲ ᏅᏓᏕᏆ ᏦᎢᏁ, ᏁᎳᏚ ᎢᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏁᎵᏍᎪ ᎦᎵᏉᎩ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒᎢ. ᏅᏗᎦᎵᏍᏙᏗᏍᎨ ᎾᎠᏂᎨᏍᏗ ᎠᏥᎳᎦᏅᏅ ᏦᏍᎪ ᎢᏳᏟᎶᏓ ᎨᏎ ᎫᏐᎢ, ᏂᎦᏓ ᎠᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏅᏔᏅᏍᎬ ᎾᎥᏆ ᎠᎾᏁᎶᏗᏍᎬ ᎤᏂᏩᎯᏍᏗ, ᎠᏗᏍᎬ Williams.
ᏅᏯ ᎤᏂᎴᏍᏗ ᎾᎥ ᏓᎵᏆ ᎠᏓᏁᎸᏍᎬ ᎪᏍᏚᎤᏁᎬ ᎠᎴ ᏃᏯᏅᏯ ᎠᏎ ᏗᎬᏙᏗ ᎨᏒ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏔᎾ ᏚᎫᏍᏓᎥ ᏅᏯ ᎠᎴ ᏦᎳᏂ ᏅᎩ ᏂᏕᎬᏛᎢ. ᏗᏓᎶᏂᎨ ᏃᏥ ᎠᏁᏢᏍᎬ ᏧᏯᏖᎾ ᎾᎿ ᏗᏒᏓᎾᎳᏗᏍᏗ, ᎠᏁᎢᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏲᏓᏠᏙᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎥ ᏗᎬᏓᏅ ᏧᏃᏢᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎤᎪᏛ ᏱᏚᏂᏂᎬᎦ ᎾᎿ ᎠᎾᏁᏍᎨᏍᎬᎢ,” ᎠᏗᏍᎬᎢ.
ᎤᎳᎪᎲᏍᏗ ᏁᎳᏚ ᎢᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏁᎵᏍᎪ ᏧᏁᎳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ, ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎦ ᎤᏂᎶᎯᏍᏔᏅ ᎤᎪᏛ ᎯᎠ ᎢᎦ ᏅᎩ ᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᎤᏂᏍᏆᏗᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᎾᏁᏍᎨᏍᎬᎢ, ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎤᏂᏩᎯᏍᏙᏗ ᏔᎷᎩᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᏐᏯᏍᏙᏗ ᎬᏩᏕᏯᏓ ᎣᏂ.
ᎾᎿ ᎧᏬᏂ ᏁᎳᏚᏏᏁ, ᏁᎳᏚ ᎢᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏁᎵᏍᎪ ᏐᏁᎳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ, Ilsley ᏫᏚᏲᏎ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏍᏆᏙᏅ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎾᎿ ᏧᏃᏱᎾ ᎠᏂᎳᏍᏓᏢ ᏗᎾᏁᏍᎨᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᎧᎻᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏂᏍᎬᏘ ᎦᎵᏉᎩᏁ ᎠᎾᎵᎮᎵᎬ ᎤᏂᏍᏆᎸᎲᎢ “ᎠᎾᎵᎮᎵᎬ ᎠᎾᎴᏂᏍᎬ ᎾᎿ ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏂᎨᏳᏣ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ,” ᎾᎿ ᎦᎶᏂ ᏔᎵᏍᎪ ᏑᏓᎵᏁ, ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᏚᏂᏍᏚᎢᏒ ᏗᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎦᏳᎳ ᏧᏃᏪᎳᏅ ᏔᎵᏧᏈ ᏦᏍᎪ ᏔᎵ ᏯᏂ ᎠᏂᎨᏳᏣ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎤᎬᏩᏟ.
Williams ᎠᏗᏍᎬ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎣᏍᏓ ᏂᎬᎾᏅ ᏯᏛᎾ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᏕᎪᏢᏒ ᏙᏯ ᏤᏓᏍᏗ, ᎤᏗᏢᎦ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎹ ᏃᎴ ᎠᎹ ᎤᏔᏃᎸᏓ ᎠᎦᏃᏗᏍᎩ ᎪᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏴᏫ ᎤᎾᏦᏗ ᎠᎵᏌᎳᏗᏍᎩ. ᎾᏍᏊ, ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏦᎢᏧᏈ ᎯᎦᏍᎪ ᏑᏓᎵ ᏗᏦᎳᏂ ᏕᎪᏢᏒ ᎠᎴ ᏔᎵ ᎦᎵᏆᏍᎪ ᎢᎳᏏᏓ ᎢᎦᏘ ᏓᎱᏣᏬᎳᏛ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏃᎴ ᎤᏪᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᎿ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎠᏙᏙᏗ. ᎾᏍᎩᏃ ᏐᏁᎳᏍᎪ ᏧᏁᎳ ᎢᎳᏏᏓ ᎢᎦᏘ ᎤᎭᎸᎾ ᎦᏛᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᏓᏁᎸᎢ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎨᏒ ᏓᎵᏆ.
“ᎾᏅ L ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎤᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᏄᎬᏫᏳᏒ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏕᎵᎬ ᏫᎪᏯᏛ ᎠᏟᎶᏓ ᏔᎵᏧᏈ ᏔᎵᏍᎪ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎢᎳᏏᏓ ᎢᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎴ ᎦᎵᏆᏍᎪ ᏧᏁᎳ ᎢᎳᏏᏓ ᎢᏯᏖᎾ. ᎤᏍᏗᎯᎨ ᎤᏓᏢ ᏩᎪᏛ ᏫᎪᏯᏛ ᎠᏟᎶᎠ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏅᎩᏍᎪ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎢᎳᏏᏓ ᎢᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᎴ ᏅᎩᏍᎪ ᎢᎳᏏᏓ ᎢᏯᏖᎾ,” ᎠᏗᏍᎬᎢ.
ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏲᏓᏝᎲ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏛ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏍᏚᏅ ᎠᏴᏍᏙᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏠᏯᏍᏗ ᎪᏛᏗᎢ, ᎤᏠᏅᏛ ᎡᏓᏍᏗ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎪᏠᏯ ᎢᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᏔᎵᏧᏈ ᏔᎵᏍᎪ ᏑᏓᎵ ᎢᎳᏏᏓ ᎢᎦᏅᎯᏓ ᎠᏓᏁᎸᎢ, ᎯᏍᎩ ᏧᏔᎾ ᏕᎧᏅᏑᎸ, ᎤᎾᏅᏗ, ᎤᎾᏓᏙᎵᏍᏙᏗ, ᎠᏓᏍᏓᏴᏗ, ᎠᎾᏓᏍᏓᏴᎲᏍᎩ ᎤᏂᏍᏆᏂᎪᏔᏅᎲᏍᏗ, ᎠᎴ ᎤᎾᎵᏍᏓᏴᏗᎢ (ᎾᎿ ᎤᏴᏢ--ᎤᎦᎾᏮ ᎪᏯᏛᎢ), ᎾᏍᎩ ᏭᏔᏂᏴ ᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎠᏲᏓᏢᎲᎢ.
ᏔᎵᏁ ᎠᏲᏓᏢᎲ ᏕᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᎢᏧᎳ ᏗᎬᎪᏛ ᎠᏰᏟ ᎦᎳᏅᏛᎢ. ᏦᎢᏁ ᎠᏲᏓᏢᎲ ᏧᏔᎾ ᏗᏒᏍᏗ ᏕᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏗᎾᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏗᎪᏢᎯ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏍᏗᎯᎨ ᏗᏒᏍᏗ ᏕᎧᏅᏑᎸ ᏗᎾᏬ ᏗᎦᏛᏗ ᏂᏗᎪᏢᏒᎾ. ᎾᏍᎩᏃ ᎤᏴᏢᎧᎸᎬ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎤᏅᏏᏴ ᎾᎿ ᏦᎢᏁ ᎠᏲᏓᏢᎲ ᎾᎿ ᏧᏂᏢᎩ ᎤᏂᏴᏍᏗ ᎨᎡᎢ.
ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏎ ᏦᎢ ᏧᏕᏘᏴᏓ ᎣᏂᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎤᎾᏁᏍᎨᏓ, ᏙᏯ ᏧᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏂᎦᏓ ᏧᏒᏙᏓ ᏂᏕᎬᏅᏗᏓᏅ ᏚᏓᏲᏒ ᏚᏲᏨ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎬᎾᏅ ᏂᎦᏓ ᎤᏲ ᎨᏒ ᎠᏟᎦ ᏂᎬᏅ ᏦᎢᏧᏈ ᎢᎳᏏᏓ ᎠᏂᎩᏓ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏔᎾ ᎠᏓᏁᎸᎢ, ᎤᏛᏅ Williams. ᎠᎹ ᎤᏟᏍᏗ ᎤᎧᎵᏨ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏔᎴᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᎹ ᎠᎴ ᏧᏓᎴᏅᏓ ᎤᏲ ᏂᎦᏓ ᏧᏏᏅᏎ ᎾᎿ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗᎢ.
“ᎢᏳᏃ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎡᎵ ᎤᏐᏅ ᏂᎨᏒᎾ ᏱᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏂᎦᏓ ᎤᏲ ᎨᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈᏛ ᎢᎳᏏᏓ ᎤᏣᏘᏂ ᎨᏒ ᎦᏅᎪᎬ ᎠᎹ Hendricks Spring ᏚᏙᎥᎢ. ᎢᏣᏅᏓᏛ, ᎾᎿᏃ ᎠᏂᏁᎩᏍᎬ ᎤᏴᏢ ᎠᎹ ᎤᎾᏗᏔᏍᏗ,” ᎠᏗᏍᎬᎢ. “ᏣᎳᎩ Advocate ᎤᏂᏃᎮᏢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎯᎠ ᏧᏒᏙᏓ ᏓᏲᎬ ᏂᎦᎵᏍᏗᏍᎬ ᎾᏍᎩ ‘ᏙᎯ ᎠᎯᎯ’ ᎤᎾᏛᏅᎢ.’ ᏃᏊᏃ ᎢᎸᏍᎩ ᏯᏂ ᏗᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᏚᏂᏲᎱᏒ ᎠᎴ ᎠᏂᏍᎦᎢᎲ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏍᎦᏎᏗ ᎤᏗᏢᎲᏍᎩ, ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ ᎬᎾᏕᎾ ᏗᏂᎳᏫᎦ ᎤᎾᏓᏅᏒ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎦᎵᏦᏕ ᎪᏢᏒ ᏙᏯ ᎤᏁᏓᏍᏗ ᎠᏍᏚᏗᎢ. ᎣᏂ ᎯᎠ ᎤᏂᏍᏚᎾ, ᏗᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᎩ ᎤᎾᎴᎾᏅᎲ ᏙᏯ ᏚᏃᏢᏅ ᏙᏯ ᏧᏁᏓᏍᏗᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎧᎸᎬ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎣᏂ.”
ᎠᏅᏱ ᏐᏁᎳᏚ ᎢᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏐᏁᎳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ, “ᎠᏲᎬ” ᏣᎳᎩ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎠᏰᎵ ᎤᏙᏢᏒ ᎤᏂᎾᏗᏅᏒ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᎾᎿ ᎢᏤ ᏍᎦᏚᎩ ᎣᎦᎵᎰᎹ ᎾᎿ ᏅᎩᏍᎪᎯᏍᎩ ᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏚᏂᎬᏩᎶᏔᏅ. ᏚᎵᏍᏗ ᏐᏁᎳᏚ ᎢᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏐᏁᎳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ, ᏗᎦᎶᎯᏍᏗ ᏚᏂᏍᏚᎢᏒ ᎾᎿ ᎤᏴᏢᎢ ᎧᎸᎬ ᏍᎦᏚᎩ ᎣᏍᏓ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ.
ᎪᎯᎢᎦ, ᎠᏓᏁᎸ ᏃᏊ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗᎢ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᏴᏢᎢ ᎧᎸᎬ ᏍᎦᏚᎩ ᎦᎸᎳᏗ ᏧᎾᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗᎢ. ᎾᏍᎩ ᎠᏂᏍᎬᏘ ᎦᎵᏉᎩᏁ, ᏔᎵ ᏯᎦᏴᎵ ᏂᎦᏚ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒ, CN, NSU ᎠᎴ ᏍᎦᏚᎩ ᏧᏂᎸᏫᏍᏓᏁᎯ ᎤᎾᎵᎮᎵᏨ ᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᎯᏍᎩᏦᏁ ᎾᏕᏘᏯ ᎾᎿ ᎾᏓᏁᎶᎢ ᏧᎵᏍᏚᎢᏎ ᎠᏂᏍᎬᏘ ᎦᎵᏉᎩᏁ, ᏁᎳᏚ ᎢᏍᎪᎯᏧᏈ ᏁᎵᏍᎪ ᏐᏁᎳ ᎤᏕᏘᏴᏌᏗᏒᎢ.